Footnotes;

[1] It is the angels who execute Gods orders:

[Quran 79.5] Execute orders (Mudaberat Amran in Arabic)

"Mudaberat" in Arabic means execute and "Amr" means order. These exact two words are also used in describing the rate at which God's orders are executed:

[Quran 32.5] (Allah) Rules the cosmic affair (Yudaber Al-Amr in Arabic) from the heavens to the Earth. Then this affair travels to Him a distance in one day, at a measure of one thousand years of what you count.

Both these verses use the same words and both refer to angels. "Araj" means a man with a lame leg; "Yaruj" means a man stepping. This verse says that angels are taking steps: indicating motion of angels. Their motion in one day is equal to 1000 years of what people back then counted (the moon).

About the Preserved Tablet:

[Quran 85.21-22] But it is a Glorious Quran. 22 Inscribed on a Preserved Tablet.

Moslems believe that Archangel Gabriel got the Quran to their prophet from this Preserved Tablet:

[Quran 15.8-11] We only send down the angels in Truth; if they were not (in truth), no respite would they have 9 We have sent down the Message; and We will preserve it 10 We did send Messengers before you among the religious sects of the old 11 But never came a Messenger to them but they mocked him.

The Quran and all the instructions to all angels were inscribed on this Preserved Tablet before the creation of Earth started. They commute to and from this Tablet to get their orders from God. The angels were originally made of light, and the speed at which they commute to and from this Tablet turned out to be the known speed of light (the Preserved Tablet is itself outside gravitational fields).

[2] What would happen if Earth suddenly stopped in its track while orbiting the sun? Earth would plummet into the sun, right? If it were not for distant stars then how would you know that Earth is orbiting the sun? Maybe it is the sun that is orbiting Earth. Or better yet, maybe Earth and sun are both fixed in their positions. So how do you know? It is the background of distant stars that tells you which is orbiting which.

Our physics today simply does not work in the synodic system. For example, this equation gives you the distance to the moon by simply knowing the sidereal lunar month (27.3 days):

f you use the time for synodic lunar month (29.5 days) it gives you the wrong distance to the moon (consequently wrong energy, wrong momentum...). But what you should keep in mind is that the equations in the sidereal system have no counterpart in the synodic system.

Although the moon keeps facing Earth it is actually spinning with respect to distant stars. Since the moon is spinning then it should bulge at the equator, right? However an observer on Earth sees the bulge but does not see the spin of the moon. When we calculate the bulge from spin with respect to Earth we get the wrong value (does not match observation). When we calculate the bulge from spin with respect to the sun we also get the wrong value. However when we calculate the bulge from spin with respect to distant stars we get the correct value. This should tell you that the bulge is a consequence of the spin with respect to distant stars (neither with respect to Earth nor with respect to the sun). This is why classical orbital mechanics (and general relativity) are based on the sidereal system, that is, rotation (and precession) are with respect to stars (this is different than motion relative to stars).

Some skeptics argue that due to Earth's motion around the sun the length of the lunar orbit is longer for an observer on the sun, however this is false. Why? Because the distance between Earth and the moon (R) is the same whether measured from Earth, from the sun or from the center of our galaxy... And since the length of the lunar orbit is simply 2πR then the length of the lunar orbit is the same for an observer on the sun, on the moon, Andromeda... Actually you should deduce from the above equation that R is measured the same for any observer in the Newtonian limit (non-relativistic).

You can make a quick Google search for "speed of light" and immediately get 299792.458 km/sec; however physics wise this is meaningless. Why? Because you cannot talk about the speed of light without defining your frame of reference. 299792.458 km/sec is the measured speed of light in local inertial frames. Form general relativity we know that as long as Earth is orbiting the sun then Earth is a non-inertial frame of reference. Earth can only be a local inertial frame if it exits the solar system or it enters a gravitational freefall towards the sun (straight in from afar). Suppose you are in a spaceship heading to a distant galaxy. Your frame of reference is your spaceship and it is pointing to and heading towards that galaxy. You keep pointing to and traveling in a straight line to that galaxy until you enter the gravitational field of a planet. Now the gravity of that planet makes your spaceship point away from that galaxy. But your spaceship is also your frame of reference, so the gravity of that planet is actually making your frame of reference to rotate with respect to stars. However in this rotating frame light does not travel in a straight line and the measured speed of light is undefined (the distance travelled in one hour gives a different speed than distance travelled in two hours...). Inside gravitational fields it is impossible to define a non-rotating frame with respect to stars unless this frame is in a gravitational freefall towards the gravitational source (straight in from afar). Since the Earth-moon system is not in a gravitational freefall towards the sun then our local frame of reference has to be rotating with respect to stars. What is the measured speed of light in this rotating frame? Undefined. However some skeptics use the synodic system, a rotating frame orbiting the sun (where the measured speed of light is undefined), with 299792.458 km/sec, the measured speed of light in a non-rotating frame freefalling towards the sun (straight in from afar). This is the same location but two different frames (in orthogonal motion). This comparison is invalid.

[3] Sun's gravitational field along with Earth's motion around the sun produce a net rotational force on the lunar orbit (like torque around Earth). Without this gravitational twist the moon's isolated orbital length would only be L' = Lcosø:

For the Earth-moon system to be outside gravitational fields then the distance to the sun has to increase to infinity. And as the distance to the sun increases to infinity the lunar orbit loses this twist; but this also means that the moon would no longer have enough kinetic energy to stay long at the compounded radius R and isolated velocity V' = Vcosø (too high too slow), instead it starts a spiral descent to the isolated radius R' = Rcosø and accelerates to final velocity

The ratio of the orbital binding energy (the ratio of the work required to move the moon against gravity to infinity) is:

his means that without the energy gained from this twist the orbital radius decreases to R' = Rcosø. Hence the length of the lunar orbit becomes L' = 2πR' = 2πRcosø = Lcosø (i.e. 12000 L' / t' = 12000 Lcosø / t') and the orbital period decreases.

Simply put: Outside the gravitational field of the sun all observers will see the speed of light equal to 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day.

An observer on Earth sees this force as rotational around Earth, however an observer on the sun sees this same force as radial towards the sun (not towards Earth). But no matter from where observers are looking they will all see this same force doing the same work.

In the isolated Earth-moon system (no sun) all external forces are screened out. This reveals the intrinsic characteristics, relations and capabilities of the system, that is, what the Earth-moon system can do on its own without any external forces. The energy for this isolated velocity V' came from a reaction force from Earth (see ocean friction above) and not from sun's gravitational force. As the moon acquires more energy from Earth's spin it does not actually speed up, instead it slows down because it orbits at a higher altitude (R' increases); the orbital period increases and the length of the lunar orbit increases. As R' reaches R, the isolated lunar orbit would have acquired the same radius and velocity as the one achieved with the assistance of the sun (R' = R & V' = V) but with a slower rotating Earth.

The nearest and farthest points in the orbit give us the average distance to the moon; but since Earth lies on the major axis of the ellipse then the average distance to the moon is just the semi-major axis. Geometrically, the radius of the equivalent circle should be the average of semi-major and semi-minor axes; but since the direction of the axes change with respect to stars then when the moon returns to the same position with respect to stars this does not mean that it made an exact ellipse. When astronomers study the energy of our moon and also the energy of moons orbiting other planets they use the equivalent circle method with the sidereal system, that is, the moon has to return to the same position with respect to stars and not return to the same position relative to the ellipse.

[4] Earth is spinning with respect to stars much faster than the moon is orbiting Earth. This makes the angle between Earth's isolated and compounded vectors to be different than that of the moon. Today when Earth rotates 360 degrees on its axis with respect to stars Earth moves 0.9829560917 degrees around the sun. Hence Earth's twist angle α = 0.9829560917 degrees.

α = (360 degrees / 365.2421987 synodic days) x (86164.0906 sec/86400 sec) synodic days = 0.9829560917 degrees

Just like when the moon recedes from Earth its spin slows down also when Earth recedes from the sun its spin slows down, that is, its rotational kinetic energy decrease (learn why at footnote [6]). So as the distance to the sun increases to infinity Earth day increases to

The ratio of the work required to stop Earth's rotation is:

[Footnotes needs finishing]