Big Big Difference.
First, the red cherry and the white ball act very differently. It's difficult for the spinners to spin the ball with the fresh red ball.
Second, bowlers (specifically spinners) can afford to be defensive. In ODI's two maiden means a definite chance of a wicket, but in Tests, 10 maidens mean nothing if the pressure isn't kept up.
And lastly, the mind set of both bowlers and batsmen are very different in ODI and in Tests. A bowler must pace himself in tests because there's a good chance he may have to bowl a marathon spell. But in ODI's, a bowler can over exert himself. This is specially applicable for pacers, but also has relevance for spinners.
In our case though, I think our bowlers haven't yet mastered the waiting game of tests. But they are much more comfortable in colored gear. Hence the apparent dichotomy in their performances. Keep in mind though, that our bowlers have also produced plenty of insipid performances in the ODIs just a few years back. So I think our bowlers will become better bowlers in tests with more exposure.
Our deeds are for us and yours for you; peace be on to you. We do not desire the way of the ignorant