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  #1  
Old October 1, 2007, 01:19 PM
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al Furqaan al Furqaan is offline
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Default The problem with "the Sunnah"

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I leave behind for you two things, which if you follow, you will never go astray: the Quran and my Sunnah (tradition).
this is a very oft quoted saying of the Prophet Muhammad (saw), and it is found in his Farewell sermon given at arafah.

i do not disagree with the statement, but there is one troubling aspect nonetheless. pretty much the only source of "the sunnah" is from the various hadith collections. you have sahih al bukhari, muslim, hadisi qudsi, et al. of course that is not the problem.

but then you have the shia, who contrary to popular sunni belief, do follow the sunnah of Prophet (saw) - they follow what they believe is the sunnah. so they have their own book of hadith, al Kafi.

now the problem is this: people quote the hadith left and right, and there is no dearth of information contained in it. however, there is also a plethora of hadith, that are contradictory to the spirit of the quran and to other hadith as well. many hadith are obviously not true or correct or models of good behavior or actions.

for example, many of us are aware of the "fact" that the Prophet consummated his marriage with Aisha when she was 6 years old. however, is there any proof of that in the Quran, the only infallible book on earth? sure there is proof in the hadith, but what kind of proof? all you have is a book written, nay compiled, by bukhari, or tirmidhi, or abu dawood which says that so and so said that such and such happened. since when is hearsay as good as gold?

even if you have a hadith where Abu Bakr or Aisha (ra) corroborate the standard accepted account, its still just a piece of paper that says that he or she said whatever.

it is fundemental in islamic aqueedah to believe that the quran is the 100% infallible word of God, but no such infallibilty is awarded to the hadith. most muslims know this, but few think about it at length.

so if even the most credible hadith is at best 99% chance that its true, it becomes both easy and necessary to dispose of the shady hadiths.

in my time, i have studied the arguments of the islamophobes at great length. i have come to see that they generally attack islam based upon the following:

- the aforementioned shady hadiths, which could NOT have been true to begin with, as I have already talked about above
- actions of so called muslims throughout history and the present day

of course given that, their claims are easily refuted for obvious reasons. however sometimes they do use the quran as a basis for their biggoted attacks. in these cases, they generally miss the point, fail to read between the lines, fail to read the context of revelation, history at that time and immediate past, as well as the greater tafsir of that particular passage. it is for this reason that the bulk majority of criticism, rather ridicule, is based upon the shady hadith and the rest is based on a flimsy understanding of quran. thus it can be ignored and/or refuted with ease.
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Old October 1, 2007, 03:13 PM
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al Furqaan ... you just made my day.

Came to BC for a quick check on the latest posts and was quite dismayed at some of the pathetic posts that betray the lack of knowledge and heart. I did not want to start a futile exercise by responding to those posts and getting bogged down in any idiotic argument.

But then I read al Furqan's post. And I had to log in and share my delight at seeing such a refreshing post. Intelligent, full of heart, not afraid. I guess this is what you call an educated person with a great upbringing. Carry on man.


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Old September 17, 2010, 11:00 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Sauron
al Furqaan ... you just made my day.

Came to BC for a quick check on the latest posts and was quite dismayed at some of the pathetic posts that betray the lack of knowledge and heart. I did not want to start a futile exercise by responding to those posts and getting bogged down in any idiotic argument.

But then I read al Furqan's post. And I had to log in and share my delight at seeing such a refreshing post. Intelligent, full of heart, not afraid. I guess this is what you call an educated person with a great upbringing. Carry on man.


.
I shall second this. Great post al Furqan! Very insightful. And I agree with it too.

EDIT: LOL Did not realise how old this thread was :P
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Old October 1, 2007, 04:23 PM
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Quote:
for example, many of us are aware of the "fact" that the Prophet consummated his marriage with Aisha when she was 6 years old. however, is there any proof of that in the Quran, the only infallible book on earth? sure there is proof in the hadith, but what kind of proof? all you have is a book written, nay compiled, by bukhari, or tirmidhi, or abu dawood which says that so and so said that such and such happened. since when is hearsay as good as gold?
Asad bhai, I will have to read your post again to fully understand what you want to say. I have just skimmed it. From that, purpose of the example that you have used in your post is not clear to me. Ummul Mumineen Aisha's (R) age of marriage is a fact, it doesn't have to be hadeeth. Because what is hadeeth? It has to be the word of the holy prophet, or his deed or his silent support to any deed. The above example din't fall in this catagory, so of course this is not a hadeeth.

Also, the hadeeths are memorised just like Quran. Until the invention of paper and printing, hadeeth was preserved the the way Quran was preserved-memorising. While memorising, and reporting hadeeths, sahabae keram mentioned not only the exact words of the prophet, but also exactly from whom they have heard or memorised the hdeeth.
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Old October 1, 2007, 07:20 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by BD-Shardul

Also, the hadeeths are memorised just like Quran. Until the invention of paper and printing, hadeeth was preserved the the way Quran was preserved-memorising. While memorising, and reporting hadeeths, sahabae keram mentioned not only the exact words of the prophet, but also exactly from whom they have heard or memorised the hdeeth.
Al-Furqaan mentioend : "it is fundemental in islamic aqueedah to believe that the quran is the 100% infallible word of God, but no such infallibilty is awarded to the hadith. most muslims know this, but few think about it at length."

I have to agree with this and that is why the question on validity of hidiths (that even so many in types such as Bukhari..... etc.) gives people chances to ponder on whether to rely only on Quran or take lessons from both Quran and all types of Hadiths available in today's world.
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Old October 2, 2007, 05:55 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by BD-Shardul
While memorising, and reporting hadeeths, sahabae keram mentioned not only the exact words of the prophet, but also exactly from whom they have heard or memorised the hdeeth.

Allah has promised protection to only the Quran, and not to ahadith

Also, is it not possible that what a Sahabi said in a particular instance may have become a bit distorted while being recorded after his death?
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Old October 2, 2007, 04:48 PM
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al Furqaan al Furqaan is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by BD-Shardul
Because what is hadeeth? It has to be the word of the holy prophet, or his deed or his silent support to any deed. The above example din't fall in this catagory, so of course this is not a hadeeth.
i agree about the lack of actual evidence that Aisha (ra) was 6...but even if she were, it wouldn't really matter to me much, as i have other evidences that Muhammad was indeed the final Messenger of God.

Quote:
Also, the hadeeths are memorised just like Quran. Until the invention of paper and printing, hadeeth was preserved the the way Quran was preserved-memorising. While memorising, and reporting hadeeths, sahabae keram mentioned not only the exact words of the prophet, but also exactly from whom they have heard or memorised the hdeeth.
here i must ask a few questions. some hadith are memorized, but the importance of hifzu quran has always been more important. plus as BT bhai said, Allah only promised to guard the quran and not the hadith. this is the crux of my argument.

sahibe ekram were holy persons and i do not believe that they would mislead others by willfully changing the sayings or teachings of the prophet. but they were fallible and thus could have made mistakes in transmitting the hadith.

then of course there are those who came much later than the tabe tabeen who could have intentionally changed the content of the hadith.

if there are so called islamic scholars or alims who today use islam as a political smokescreen and excuse to further their personal un-islamic agendas, then it could have happened 1000 years ago as well.

the proof is that even within respected "authentic" books like sahih al bukhari you have contradictory hadith.

personally, to me it matters little if the hadith i read was actually said by the prophet (saw) or not. what is of utmost importance is if the said hadith is in accordance with the spirit of the quran. if it is then it should be accepted and if not then it should be rejected.
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Old October 2, 2007, 05:28 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by al Furqaan
the proof is that even within respected "authentic" books like sahih al bukhari you have contradictory hadith.

personally, to me it matters little if the hadith i read was actually said by the prophet (saw) or not. what is of utmost importance is if the said hadith is in accordance with the spirit of the quran. if it is then it should be accepted and if not then it should be rejected.
Couldn't agree more. It has recently become very transparent to me these contradictions exist in hadith, especially al-Bukhari.

Quote:
FROM SAHIH BUKHARI - VOLUME 9, #506:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri that during the battle with Bani Al-Mustaliq they (Muslims) captured some females and intended to have sexual relations with them without impregnating them. So they asked the prophet about coitus interruptus. The prophet said, "It is better that you should not do it, for Allah has written whom He is going to create till the Day of Resurrection". Qaza'a said, "I heard Abu Said saying that the prophet said, "No soul is ordained to be created but Allah will create it."
1. The meaning can be lost in translation. First of all, does the above hadith imply "forced" sexual intercourse? Would intercourse under any cirumstance be permitted before marriage? Was the Prophet (PBUH) fully aware of under what circumstances the question about "coitus interruptus" was asked to him?

2. There is too many "I heard him say that person saying this". It creates confusion, loses the authencity, meaning and intent of the original statement, if it was made at all.

3. Non-Muslims often use the hadith as concrete proof to argue "questionable" acts in Islam, but it may contradict another hadith in the same book, or because there is/there is no explicit mention in the Qu'ran that contradicts the hadith.

So who is to blame? How to counter these contradictions?
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Old October 3, 2007, 03:07 AM
BD-Shardul BD-Shardul is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by al Furqaan
i agree about the lack of actual evidence that Aisha (ra) was 6...but even if she were, it wouldn't really matter to me much, as i have other evidences that Muhammad was indeed the final Messenger of God.



here i must ask a few questions. some hadith are memorized, but the importance of hifzu quran has always been more important. plus as BT bhai said, Allah only promised to guard the quran and not the hadith. this is the crux of my argument.

sahibe ekram were holy persons and i do not believe that they would mislead others by willfully changing the sayings or teachings of the prophet. but they were fallible and thus could have made mistakes in transmitting the hadith.

then of course there are those who came much later than the tabe tabeen who could have intentionally changed the content of the hadith.

if there are so called islamic scholars or alims who today use islam as a political smokescreen and excuse to further their personal un-islamic agendas, then it could have happened 1000 years ago as well.

the proof is that even within respected "authentic" books like sahih al bukhari you have contradictory hadith.

personally, to me it matters little if the hadith i read was actually said by the prophet (saw) or not. what is of utmost importance is if the said hadith is in accordance with the spirit of the quran. if it is then it should be accepted and if not then it should be rejected.

Asad Bhai,

I challenge you to come up with an example of a saheeh hadeeth that does not agree with the spirit of the Quran.

The hadeeths, which are in the "Sittah Sihah", are 100% exact of what our prophet uttered.

You will only find hadeeths that doesn't agree with the spirit of the Quran either in weak traditions or Shia Kafi book, which by the way contains nothing but completely বিকৃত hadeeths.

Last edited by ammark; October 3, 2007 at 04:32 AM.. Reason: mod.misc: added bangla tags
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Old October 3, 2007, 08:13 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by BD-Shardul
The hadeeths, which are in the "Sittah Sihah", are 100% exact of what our prophet uttered.
Shardul bhai, please, can you enlighten me on "Sittah Sihah" hadiths? As far as I knew, all hadiths have been written by the followers of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). And that's where the actual problem arises from. Is "Sittah Sihah" type of hadiths any different from these?

I'm asking from a complete lack of knowledge about this.
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Old October 3, 2007, 11:43 AM
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Originally Posted by Kabir
Shardul bhai, please, can you enlighten me on "Sittah Sihah" hadiths? As far as I knew, all hadiths have been written by the followers of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). And that's where the actual problem arises from. Is "Sittah Sihah" type of hadiths any different from these?

I'm asking from a complete lack of knowledge about this.
Inshallah I will reply, probably tomorrow.
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Old October 1, 2007, 07:49 PM
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I also agree. Many non-Muslims often use these various Hadith as concrete proof to argue various debatable aspects of Islam, and you can't rule out misinterpretations and inconsistencies that may exist. That's why Qur’an is regarded as the ultimate and unchanged truth of God, because no one can challenge it, but many people can challenge the words of man.
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Old October 2, 2007, 12:06 AM
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The source of Islamic Shariah is four:

1. The Holy Quran
2. The Hadeeth
3. The Ijma
4. The Qiyas

(do not have time now to write more now, inshallah later I will try to explain each of them)
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Old October 2, 2007, 05:54 AM
Banglatiger84 Banglatiger84 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by al Furqaan

now the problem is this: people quote the hadith left and right, and there is no dearth of information contained in it. however, there is also a plethora of hadith, that are contradictory to the spirit of the quran and to other hadith as well. many hadith are obviously not true or correct or models of good behavior or actions.
.

The problem is as follows:

1) The moment you express a doubt of ahadith's authenticity, you are accused of denying the Prophet's Sunnah.

2) Ahadith are treated as being equal to the Quran, and asking "is the ahadith 100% accurate" is interpreted as questioning the Prophet (pbuh)

3) People get very hot headed when you bring this topic up, and so it often becomes unpleasant to continue a discussion where questioning authenticity of ahadith is taken as leaving Islam
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Old October 2, 2007, 09:13 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Banglatiger84
The problem is as follows:

1) The moment you express a doubt of ahadith's authenticity, you are accused of denying the Prophet's Sunnah.

2) Ahadith are treated as being equal to the Quran, and asking "is the ahadith 100% accurate" is interpreted as questioning the Prophet (pbuh)

3) People get very hot headed when you bring this topic up, and so it often becomes unpleasant to continue a discussion where questioning authenticity of ahadith is taken as leaving Islam
I shall write more about it at my break...but very briefly, let me just tell you that you took away the words from my mouth.

Even until a few months ago I used to debate with people about authenticity of hadith. But everyone used to bring Imam Bhukhari and said that he prayed so many raqats of nafal for every hadith, and so on. And I used to argue, does that necessarily mean that praying nafal will make your words come from heaven? The problem that we're ALL aware of is the TRANSFER of ideas from one person to another often comes with a BIT of distortion. That is to say:

Original idea when transferred to another person = Close to the original idea + a bit of distortion

After being repeatedly called un-Islamic and non-Muslim for questioning hadith, I stopped questioning it in public. My belief is in myself, and I'll live with it.

Two days after my wedding, I attended another wedding where the Imaam was saying things that I didn't agree with. And I started arguing with my shala, and a couple of other guys from India and Pakistan. One of them started talking about hadith, and I said, don't bring hadith in this coz all I'm talking about here is Quran, since that's what's authentic to me. One guy (without much surprise) immediately asked "oh, so you're questioning the authenticity of Imaam Bhukhari's words?"

I reiterated the fact that yes, we have to do our Sunnah. But what we KNOW of as Sunnah may not really be what Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) did. And it's simply due to the distortion that I mentioned a little earlier. If Ahmedinajeid can question the fact that whether "holocust has occurred" even though it happened not even a century ago, how can we say that what the sahabis recorded a thousand years ago still hold true?

That's as much as I shall write at the moment. More will follow, if time permits, and if nobody jumps on me calling me non-Muslim. And just a friendly request to all my friends here at BC, you dare not call me a non-Muslim due to whatever I have said thus far.
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Old October 2, 2007, 01:46 PM
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Lightbulb Long and final post from an ordinary Muslim ready to accept Allah's judgment

I'll start with an extensive quotation for a close, good faith, non-reactionary reading. I encourage all those interested to visit the website and explore it in detail to address specific concerns and issues, all of which in the website use the Holy Quraan as the only reference. If you visit the quoted page in the website, you'll find all the links that provide the Quraanic rationale behind its claims. I have no desire to engage in debate with anybody who doesn't use the detail and duly contextualized content of the website in order to refute its claims.

Quote:


"...O people of the Scripture, let us come to a common agreement between us and between you; that 1) we do not serve except God, and 2) do not set up anything at all with Him, and 3) that none of us takes each other as patrons besides God...." (The Message 3:64)

This website has been created for all people who have a desire to allow God into their lives and follow His path alone...

This website invites all people of various beliefs (Sunni, Shia, Christian, Jewish, Buddhist, Bahai, Agnostic, Humanist, and even Atheists) to come and examine for themselves the system of Submission/Islam which is based on God Alone.


Many of you may outwardly be content with your current faith or that which you inherited from your parents and community...but to some out there, there will always be a tugging at the back of their mind that 'there is something more', and that 'some things don't always make sense'...

If you are one of those people, then open your eyes, put on your thinking cap, and welcome to an open examination of the system of Submission/Islam which very few know about...

WHAT IS Islam?

The system of God "Islam/Submission" has been taught to us through God and His messenger and is fully outlined in the final Book of God (The Qur'an) which was revealed centuries ago...

The Qur'an claims legitimacy for itself and within itself, allowing NO room for self-made priests, or religious leaders, who have distorted and misquoted the Book of God to give themselves authority and partnership with the Almighty...

“'Shall I seek other than God as a judge when He has sent down to you this Scripture fully detailed?'” Those to whom We have given the Scripture know it is sent down from your Lord with truth; so do not be of those who have doubt." (The Message 6:114 )

"Say: 'Which is the greatest testimony?' Say: 'God is witness between me and you, and He has inspired to me this Qur'an that I may warn you with it and whomever it reaches, that you bear witness that along with God are other gods!' Say: 'I do not bear witness!' Say: 'He is only One god, and I am innocent of what you set up!'” (The Message 6:19)

"And We have come to them with a Scripture which We have detailed with knowledge; a guide and a mercy to those who believe." (The Message 7:52)

"We have revealed to you the Scripture with truth that you may judge between the people by that which God has shown you, and do not be an advocate for the treacherous. " (The Message 4:105)

"And the Day We send to every nation a witness against them from themselves, and We have brought you as a witness against these. And We have sent down to you the Scripture as a clarification for all things, and a guide and mercy and good tidings to those who have surrendered." (The Message 16:89)

"And We have sent down to you the Scripture with truth, authenticating what is present of the Scripture and superseding it. So judge between them by what God has sent down, and do not follow their desires from what has come to you of the truth. For each of you We have made laws, and a structure; and had God willed, He would have made you all one nation, but He tests you with what He has given you; so strive to do good. To God you will return all of you, and He will inform you regarding that in which you dispute." (The Message 5:48)

What about Obeying the Messenger?

The gravest crime the self-appointed scholars who claimed to be Muslim made was to give authority to the traditions (Sunna) and the books of Sayings (Hadith) ALONGSIDE the authority of God and His messenger. They believe that it was God who authorized such action by commanding the people to ‘obey God, and obey the messenger’…

"Whoever obeys the messenger has obeyed God; and whoever turns away, We have not sent you as a guardian over them." (The Message 4:80)

What is so sadly neglected is that the most critical aspects of the messenger’s life have been recorded and captured in the most detailed manner…not in the books of Hadith or tradition…but in the Holy Book itself. The questions that he was asked, and the answers (inspired by God) that he gave:

"They ask you about intoxicants and gambling. Say: 'In them is great harm, and a benefit for mankind; but their harm is greater than their benefit.' And they ask you how much are they to give, Say: 'The excess.' It is thus that God clarifies for you the revelations that you may think." (The Message 2:219)

"And they ask you concerning the Spirit. Say: 'The Spirit is from the command on my Lord, and the knowledge you were given was but very little.'" (The Message 17:85)

The list of questions and answers goes on throughout the Book of God…This is the life of the Messenger, and this is the ‘obedience’ of the messenger…Without ‘obeying the messenger’, we would inadvertently ignore nearly 1/3 of the Book of God which deals with his most authentic narrations authorized and inspired by God which we have been commanded to follow…

“Nor does he speak from personal desire. It is a divine inspiration." (The Message 53:3-4)

What is Difference between Islam and Today's PRACTICES?

In comparing the teachings of Islam as derived from the Book of God to the practices taught and enforced by the popular Sunni and Shia faiths (1.2 Bn followers), we find that the list is quite extensive, with some of the highlights as follows:

In Islam, the requirement to be a Muslim is to simply accept and live according to the ‘Straight Path’ (6:151-153), Vs. the Sunni or Shia 5-pillars which come from unauthorized books…

In Islam, abolishing Slavery is taught to be an act of righteousness (90:12-13), Vs. Sunni and Shia teachings which encourages slavery under war…

In Islam, women are never forbidden from praying or fasting during Menstruation (2:222), nor is there a specific dress code (i.e. the Headscarf) imposed on them beyond modesty, Vs. the Sunni and Shia which teach the undermining of women and forcing them to cover their hair and avoid praying or fasting at certain times...

In Islam, a man or women may leave a Will, after settlement of debt (4:12), Vs. Sunnis who refuse to accept wills if there are any direct descendants...

In Islam, Monogamy is the basis for normal relationships, while polygamy is only allowed in cases involving marrying the mothers of orphans under the man’s guardianship (4:3), Vs. Sunnis where a man may be a polygamist simply if he can afford to, and Shia which allow sex for pleasure (Mut’a)...

In Islam, Divorce is enforceable only after a two-phase period, and it may be made nullified if the couple reconcile before the end of this period (65:1, 65:4), Vs. Sunni teachings that destroy families by allowing a divorce to occur on the spot with no waiting period and no nullification...

In Islam, Thieves do not have their hands cut-off, but are made to work until they return that which is stolen (12:76), Vs. Sunni and Shia teachings which brutally amputate the hands causing disability...

In Islam, no one is allowed to be killed or Stoned for adultery (24:2), Vs. Sunni and Shia laws of stoning married adulterers to death...

In Islam, absolute Freedom of Faith is allowed (2:256, 10:99; 18:29; 88:21-22), Vs. Sunni and Shia requiring apostates to be killed and rejecting the practice of other faiths...

In Islam, people are acknowledged as being diverse and each is to be respected for his/her level of spiritual growth. A Submitter ‘Muslim’ must work to attain the status of Faithful ‘Mumin’ (49:14), Vs. Sunni and Shia teachings that all followers of their religion must think, act, and even look the same (cult syndrome)...

In Islam, War can only be declared in cases of self-defence - no offensives (2:190), Vs. Sunni and Shia teachings allowing raids and attacks on any people who are considered non-Muslim by their standards...

In Islam, Pilgrimage is a centre for gathering of nations and for all to witness the benefits of being together (22:27-28), Vs. Sunni and Shia bringing in polytheistic rituals and superstition (touching of black stone, circling 7 times, etc..)...

In Islam, a Year is a luni-solar count made of 365-days (17:12, 9:36), with all the seasons fitting-in-place Vs. Sunnis teaching it to be a lunar one based on 354 days which creates confusion of seasons and time…

In Islam, males and females are not required to be Circumcised (32:7), Vs. Sunni and Shia teachings requiring all males to be circumcised and females in some cases...

In Islam, music, statues, gold and silk are all Lawful (7:32-33, 16:116), Vs. Sunni beliefs forbidding silk & gold for men, and forbidding music & statues for all...

In Islam, rule of Government is under the constitution of the Qur'an through consultation and free-speech (5:48, 42:38). Vs. Sunni teachings which allow the rise of dictators or monarchs, and Shia teachings which uphold self-appointed religious leaders based on genealogy.

Therefore, the clearest difference is that Islam is a monotheistic, clear, consistent, dynamic, progressive, balanced system...a system that eliminates conjectures, hearsay, fairy tales and contradictions...therefore it eliminates hardship, confusion, chaos, and division. It is a system which puts more accent on the usage of intellect, reason, pondering over God, His Creation, meaning of life, pondering over everything...While the sects represent superstition, unfair treatment for non-cult members, inequality of the sexes, oppression of human rights, inability to contribute to human progress, amputations or physical violence, regression of ideas and thoughts to primitive levels of barbarism, and most importantly setting-up partners with the One True God and thus promoting polytheism.

God Alone

For the Sunnis and Shia who are shocked by the words they have been reading, we invite you to seek God Alone with your heart and your mind and to give-up all the previous wasted years of idolatry and polytheism that you have unknowingly been party to...For our Lord tells us that it is never too late to seek His forgiveness:

"Say: 'O My servants who transgressed against themselves, do not despair of God's mercy. For God forgives all sins. He is the Forgiver, the Merciful.'" (The Message 39:53)

But be warned, while only God knows the fate of an individual, by simply turning away without verifying what has been said here can bring the gravest of consequences:

"And who is more wicked than one who is reminded of his Lord’s verses but he turned away from them, and he forgot what his hands had done. We have made veils upon their hearts from understanding them, and a deafness in their ears. And if you invite them to the guidance, they will never be guided." (The Message 18:57)

Now ask yourself: Will God Alone be enough for you?

"And when God Alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter are filled with aversion; and when others are mentioned beside Him, they rejoice!" (The Message 39:45)

Why is Islam for me?

This is what it all boils down to, a "what's in it for me" outlook that is very human and very natural...Well, the answers that may sway you to 'God Alone' and let you abandon your current faith, whatever the costs may be, are as follows...

"And if the town’s people had only believed and been aware, then We would have opened for them blessings from the sky and the land; but they denied, so We took them for what they used to earn." (The Message 7:96)

Islam guarantees victory (30:47, 22:38-39, 47-7).

Islam guarantees prosperity and abundance (7:96, 41:30-31).

Islam guarantees maximum freedom for the people - freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom to travel, and freedom of economy (2:256, 10:99, 88:21-22).

Islam guarantees human rights for all the people, regardless of their race, color, creed, social status, financial situation, or political affiliation (5:8, 49:13).

Islam guarantees a political system that is based on consultation and the freedom for open expression (42:38).

Islam guarantees a society that upholds and maintains the highest standards of moral behavior.

Islam guarantees a maximum regard for people's lives and properties.

Islam guarantees prevalence of love, courtesy, peace, and mutual respect among the people, and with other world communities (3:110, 60:8-9).

Islam guarantees environmental protection as a result of deterring pollution through conservation and prohibition of wasteful practices (30:41).

If you are convinced that a dignified, prosperous, righteous, logical, and practical way of life is your desire, then Islam is for you. You can begin to change your life immediately by putting-aside all that you have been raised to believe in and objectively taking a fresh-start by reading-up on the topics we discussed and many more in the words of God in His Book, and discover for yourself with no prejudice or interference.

"That is because God was not to change anything He bestowed to a people, unless they change what is in themselves. God is Hearer, Knowledgeable." (The Message 8:53)

"GOD ALONE"
SAY NO TO ANYTHING ELSE

Link:http://www.free-minds.org/
By quoting from the aforementioned website, my intent is simply to put forth an “Allah Only”, “Quraan Only” anti-sectarian, unifying view of Islam from practicing Muslims. As an anti-sectarian Muslim, I humbly suggest that we read and understand the Quraan as responsible Muslims, willfully submit ourselves to Allah at a deeply personal, meaning spiritual, intellectual and physical level, and utilize the guidance revealed in the Holy Quraan to attain personal and communal - not sectarian – happiness as Allah’s creations in this world and the next. Not surprisingly, my personal views of sectarianism and endless blame games are not at all positive based on my personal understanding of the Quraan. No offense is intended to those who are sectarian in their beliefs.

Such “Allah Only”, “Quraan Only” anti-sectarian, unifying view of Islam and various practices resulting from it are as old as The Holy Quraan itself. In my family, a traditionally “Shia” family with roots in Old Dhaka, my great-great grandfather came across such views during his pilgrimage to Mecca in the 1870s. Since then, being “Shia” has been a matter of cultural practices for our family in a traditionally tolerant, largely anti-sectarian “Sunni” Muslim community in Old Dhaka. The cultural practices revolve around the following tenets of "Shia" Islam: -

Quote:
The Shia believe in the five pillars of Islam, as do Sunnis, but categorize them differently. Shia beliefs include the following:

I. Theology of Shia (Usūl al-Dīn)

1. Tawhīd (Oneness): The Oneness of God

2. Adalah (Justice): The Justice of God

3. Nubuwwah (Prophethood): God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion (that is, a perfect system of how to live in "peace" ("submission to God"))

4. Imamah (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise

5. Qiyamah (The Day of Judgment): God will raise mankind for Judgment

II. Aspects of Religion (Furū al-Dīn)

1. Salat — called "Namaaz" in Persian — (Prayer) – Performing the five daily prayers (Prayers can be made up for at night)

2. Sawm — called "Roozeh" in Persian — (Fast) – fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan (Able to eat after the sun goes down)

3. Hajj (Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to Mecca (once in a lifetime)

4.Zakat (Poor-rate) – paying the poor-tax (2.5% of your wealth every year should go to the poor)

5. Khums (One-fifth of savings) – paying tax to the Imam (سهم امام)

6. Jihad (Struggle) – struggling to please the Almighty. The greater, or internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life. The lesser, or external, Jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life. This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means "Holy War". Writing the truth (jihad bil qalam) and speaking truth in front of an oppressor are also forms of Jihad.

7. Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf – commanding what is good

8. Nahi-Anil-Munkar – forbidding what is evil

9. Tawalla – loving the Ahlul Bayt and their followers

10. Tabarra – dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shia
http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Religion...ty/Islam/Shia/
Anybody familiar with the religious-cultural activities centered around Husseini Dalan in Old Dhaka can some shed light as to what they are and how they're related to the aforementioned fundamentals of the sect.

Based largely on anti-sectarian excerpts from the Holy Quraan, and a sermon from Ali Ibn Abi Talib's sermons quoted in Nahj al-Balagha, my forefathers understood the folly of all "my way or the highway" type of exclusivist, absolutist and divisive sectarianism, whatever form it takes within Islam.

Here are a couple of excerpts: -

Quote:
The Qur'an, chapter 28 (Al-Qisas), verse 15: “ And he went into the city at a time of unvigilance on the part of its people, so he found therein two men fighting, one being of his party and the other of his foes, and he who was of his party cried out to him for help against him who was of his enemies, so Musa struck him with his fist and killed him. He said: This is on account of the Shaitan's doing; surely he is an enemy, openly leading astray"

Arabic: وَدَخَلَ الْمَدِينَةَ عَلَى حِينِ غَفْلَةٍ مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا فَوَجَدَ فِيهَا رَجُلَيْنِ يَقْتَتِلَانِ هَذَا مِن شِيعَتِهِ وَهَذَا مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَاسْتَغَاثَهُ الَّذِي مِن شِيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذِي مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَوَكَزَهُ مُوسَى فَقَضَى عَلَيْهِ قَالَ هَذَا مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ مُّضِلٌّ مُّبِينٌ


The Qur'an, chapter 30 (Ar-Rum), verse 31 to 32: “ Turning to Him, and be careful of (your duty to) Him and keep up prayer and be not of the polytheists. Of those who divided their religion and became seas every sect rejoicing in what they had with them."

Arabic: مُنِيبِينَ إِلَيْهِ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَلَا تَكُونُوا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعاً كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ
Imam Ali said: -

Quote:
“ You should know that you have again reverted to the position of the [pagan] Bedouin Arabs after immigration to Islam, and have become different sects (Shia's) after having been once united. You do not possess anything of Islam except its name, and know nothing of belief save its show. You would throw down Islam on its face in order to defame its honor and break its pledge for brotherhood which Allah gave you as a sacred trust on His earth and a source of peace among the people. Be sure that if you incline towards anything other than Islam. the unbelievers will fight you. Then there will be neither Gabriel nor Michael, neither Muhajirun nor Ansar to help you, but only the clashing of swords, till Allah settles the matter for you…You have broken the shackles of Islam, have transgressed its limits, and have destroyed its commands! ”
Intermarriages with Sunnis in my family have been commonplace since that memorable pilgrimage to the Holy City, and each person in my family is free to worship as they feel, think and see fit. One of my uncles, born and raised in New Zealand of all places, participated in the Islamic Revolution in Iran upon his graduation from Al Azhar, and is an “orthodox Shia” so to speak. His Egyptian wife is a traditional “Sunni” Muslim sympathetic to but not a member of Hizbut Tahrir. By the infinite grace of Allah they have a genuinely happy marriage as they have managed to find a common ground in the Holy Quraan, the Hadith, mutual good faith and love. Their children and grandchildren are systematically exposed to the Holy Quraan, the particular Shia and Sunni ways of practicing Islam, and are free to choose their way of worship as they wish, or not to worship at all. Only Allah knows what is truly in the hearts and minds of His creations and only He can accord the inevitable judgments that await us all. Such unions, though discouraged by the sectarian leadership, are not uncommon in the scholarly culture Al Azhar and other Muslim Communities other than sectarian orthodoxies the Gulf, parts of rural Iran, Southern Central Asia, most of South Asia except notably Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia except Thailand and parts of Indonesia.

My late grandfather and father considered any such labels to be divisive, sectarian and ultimately blasphemous, and based their ways of worship solely on the divine authority and guidance of the Holy Quraan, and the interpretations, insights and opinions of Muslim scholars throughout the ages. Islam for them was also an “intellectual” deen (Way) and they were naturally erudite in their own thoughts with regards to those the interpretations, insights and opinions – as the single most necessary component of that “intellectual” deen besides holistic Allah-consciousness. They saw such commitment as a responsibility as thinking Muslims for whom Islam is more than the comforting but divisive conformity in the cultural practices one is simply born into.

They and many others since the revelation of the Holy Quraan clearly understood the role Muslim scholars and luminaries must play as Muslims without appointing themselves de facto priests and intermediaries between Allah and man’s salvation, despite semantic claims to the contrary. The Holy Quraan itself warns of this phenomenon that can lead people astray by creating divisions with the “my way or the highway” approach, and assigning de facto partnerships to that salvation in a manner akin to the Catholic Church. In an age where both literacy, access to information and more detailed, context and semiotics-based translations and transliterations of Quraanic Arabic are becoming more and more commonplace, the roles of scholars in Islam - already limited because of Islam’s prohibition of priesthood – must evolve accordingly in order to accommodate these Information Age realities very different from perhaps any other age in human history. On the other hand, those scholars intentionally and inadvertently benefiting from divisions, exclusions, seem ultimately interested in nothing other than the conviction of their vanity.

It is up to each individual Muslim to choose - according to all of their circumstances in this world and subsequent the intellectual and spiritual limitations they have placed upon themselves with regards to their individual abilities as ordained by Allah – what sort of role what kind of scholar is to play in his or her life and to what end as an individual Muslim living this life as an integral part of his/her community and the world.

My younger brother and I subscribe to the way of our forefathers not because we have had the benefit of being born into it, but because that is where we find ourselves as individuals in this existential journey. We read, get inspired by, think about and internalize the guidance revealed Quraan as a we pray, we fast, we serve our communities, we meet our financial, ethical and moral obligations, we endeavor to refrain from unkind acts to ourselves - meaning the indivisible unity of our spirit, intellect and body - and everyone and everything in the world around us, and we humbly struggle for justice as the extension of cultivating and nurturing that kindness.

For me personally as an anti-sectarian Muslim, the defining principle of being one is love of Allah, and the manifestation of that love through the diligent cultivation of kindness, and social justice as an extension of that kindness. Kindness starts with oneself by taking care of the self and discarding the ego by willfully submitting to Allah, by taking care of one’s family and community, and by understanding that Allah is the ONLY omniscient and omnipotent judge of all things, and nobody will escape HIS judgment in this world or the moment of our death.

Islam as per the Holy Quraan is also an "intellectual" Deen (Way) without priesthood - de facto or any other kind intermediary between Allah and man's existential and other salvation - and every individual Muslim has the responsibility to exercise his or her Allah given faculties, nurture and enhance those faculties through discipline and scholarship, and apply the guidance of the divine revelation of the Holy Quraan in everyday life wholeheartedly and holistically.

The concept of “authorization” of books other than the Quraan with regards to the Messenger (PBUH) and other concerns are addressed with Quraanic references in the easy to explore website and my quotation from the website. I personally find equating, for all practical purposes, the reverence for a revealed text to man made text, and empowering scholars restricted in their role according to the revelation, to the point of becoming intermediaries between Allah and our salvation, nothing less than heartbreaking and tragic. No intentional or inadvertently semantic twists or doublespeak can mitigate the actual power relations at play there. Some of those power relations become dangerous once they seek to impose knowledge masquerading as debate with its own set of absolutist dogmas and rules of men, and exercise power without the possibility of role reversal and playing GOD in their judgments. Divisions with easy answers in a world where other men do the thinking for us, ultimately benefit those who profit from such divisions as a source of socio-political power. There is great indignity in speaking for others in a universe created by the only omniscient and omnipotent Creator who has created it in ways we’re just beginning to understand as modern scientific knowledge since Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Chaos Theory, the Human Genome Project, and incredible advances since in physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics.

The Quraan was revealed for the benefit of all of mankind, not as a “rocket science” to an elite few to interpret and try to impose its meaning upon others by intentionally and inadvertently taking advantage of our needs and senses of inadequacy, submission and wonder. We are all born with natural, Allah-given abilities that may be nurtured and enhanced through scholarly and other endeavors, but those value additions in no way allow for a de facto priesthood for us to sheepishly follow by assigning such prohibitive and from my daily readings of the Holy Quraan - prohibited partnerships.

Scholars, according the Quraan, have a very limited role to play in our lives as weathermen out to tell everyone which way the wind blows. Sadly all too often we accord them the power to do the thinking for us, and take the easy way of the sheep. Another story, but as good-hearted, intelligent and literate Muslims in the Information Age of the 21st century, our individual application of Islam in spirit, mind and body as inseparable components of individual existence in this life is imperative as a way to be happy in this world, as a part of this world, and in the world to come.

Peace, Sohel

(also posted in another thread)
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Last edited by Sohel; October 4, 2007 at 01:10 PM..
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Old October 2, 2007, 04:36 PM
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excellent posts by both banglatiger84 and Sohel bhais.
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Old October 3, 2007, 02:19 AM
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Very informative and enlightining. Pls carry on.
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Old October 3, 2007, 05:16 AM
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Quote:
Originally posted by Sohel NR

5. Khums (One-fifth of savings) – paying tax to the Imam (سهم امام
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Old October 4, 2007, 03:48 AM
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For those not duly familiar with Quraanic Arabic, here are a couple of links to the Holy Quraan translated in easy to understand English. Any useful, linguistic, semiotic or otherwise erudite critique is most welcome.

http://www.geocities.com/masad02/

http://www.free-minds.org/quran/

A gentle reminder: purely dogmatic jingoism masquerading as "debate" or "dispute" without proper erudition only leads to further embarrassment of all involved. It is sad to try and "refute" what one hasn't examined in detail or in good faith without angry and bitter preconceptions ...
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"And do not curse those who call on other than GOD, lest they blaspheme and curse GOD, out of ignorance. We have adorned the works of every group in their eyes. Ultimately, they return to their Lord, then He informs them of everything they had done." (Qur'an 6:108)

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Old October 4, 2007, 10:07 AM
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Lightbulb Suggested Reading

My brothers Asaad, HB and others -

Here are a few links about the Hadith. Feel free to explore them.

Peace, Sohel.

History of Hadith:http://www.free-minds.org/articles/h...hadithmyth.htm

The Hadith Conspiracy:http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/hadithcon.htm

A Question of Authenticity?http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/aisha.htm

Who authorized Bukhari?http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/bukhari.htm

Refutations:http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/refute.htm

Refutation-2:http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/refute2.htm

Seven Questions Seeking Answers:http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/seven.htm

Messenger of God : The Great Conflict:http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/conflict.htm

The Quran and Me:http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/conflict.htm
One man's journey from the clutches to Hadith to the path of Islam.

Rethinking Tradition:http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/rethink.htm

Does Hadith Have a Historic Foundation?http://www.free-minds.org/articles/hadith/refute2.htm
A logical and historic look at Islam's 'alleged' second source of law.
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"And do not curse those who call on other than GOD, lest they blaspheme and curse GOD, out of ignorance. We have adorned the works of every group in their eyes. Ultimately, they return to their Lord, then He informs them of everything they had done." (Qur'an 6:108)
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Old October 4, 2007, 12:50 PM
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Quote:
I do not believe as some of my fellow anti-sectarian, "Allah only" travelers do that the Sunnah as expressed through the 5 pillars and the straight path as written in the Holy Quraan need to be mutually exclusive in practice. It is very much possible to practice elements of the Sunnah and NOT break our covenant with Allah, provided that those practices are neither purely ritualistic devoid of individual and deeply internalized meanings and experiences, nor undertaken in anything contrary to the Spirit of the Quraan. If those practices are not imposed or coerced into the hearts of its parishioners who willfully and consciously submit to the Allah as revealed in the Holy Quraan, they do indeed become critical toolkits to consolidate our covenant with Allah.
haven't read through all of sohels lengthy posts, but this was a gem. in his own words "WTG!"
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Old October 4, 2007, 09:31 PM
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Sunnah and Hadith


"And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever he forbids you, leave it. And fear Allah: truly Allah is severe in punishment. " [Qur'an 59:7]

In Islam, the Arabic word sunnah has come to denote the way Prophet Muhammad (saas), the Messenger of Allah, lived his life. The Sunnah is the second source of Islamic jurisprudence, the first being the Qur'an. Both sources are indispensable; one cannot practice Islam without consulting both of them. The Arabic word hadith (pl. ahadith) is very similar to Sunnah, but not identical. A hadith is a narration about the life of the Prophet (saas) or what he approved - as opposed to his life itself, which is the Sunnah as already mentioned.
In M. M. Azami's Studies in Hadith Methodology and Literature, the following precise definition of a hadith is given,
According to Muhaddithiin [scholars of hadith -ed.] it stands for 'what was transmitted on the authority of the Prophet, his deeds, sayings, tacit approval, or description of his sifaat (features) meaning his physical appearance. However, physical appearance of the Prophet is not included in the definition used by the jurists.'
Thus hadith literature means the literature which consists of the narrations of the life of the Prophet and the things approved by him. However, the term was used sometimes in much broader sense to cover the narrations about the Companions [of the Prophet -ed.] and Successors [to the Companions -ed.] as well.
The explosion of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries confronted Islamic scholars with a daunting task: to preserve the knowledge of the Sunnah of the Prophet (saas). Hence the science of hadith evaluation was born. We recommend that you read the "Introduction to the Science of Hadith" below to understand the tremendous efforts that were required to sift the true reports from the false reports. The success of the early scholars is also captured below by some collections of hadith.
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Old October 4, 2007, 09:47 PM
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Importance of Hadith ...



Those people who think that the Quran is the only source of Islamic Law should read the following verses from the Holy Quran and do a bit of introspection (a mighty bit, that is):

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً
Indeed in the Messenger of God (Muhammad) you have a beautiful example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) God and the Last Day and remembers God much. (33:21)

وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ
And verily, you (O Muhammad) are on an exalted standard of character. (68:4)

How can one attempt to follow the "gold-standard" character of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) without the Hadith literature?

Also:

قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ
Say (O Muhammad): "Obey Allah and the Messenger (Muhammad)." But if they turn away, then Allah does not like the disbelievers. (3:32)

وَأَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ
And obey Allah and the Messenger (Muhammad) that you may obtain mercy. (3:132)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً
O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination. (4:59)

وَمَن يُطِعِ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاء وَالصَّالِحِينَ وَحَسُنَ أُولَـئِكَ رَفِيقًا
And whoso obeys Allah and the Messenger (Muhammad), then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His Grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqun (those followers of the Prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them, like Abu Bakr as-Siddiq), the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are! (4:69)

How can one obey the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) without access to the Hadith literature?

http://isre.blogspot.com/
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Old October 4, 2007, 09:50 PM
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The Science Of Hadith

From USC Muslim Students Association Islamic Server
© Islamic Awareness, All Rights Reserved.






In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate the Most Merciful
We have, Without doubt, sent down the message: and we will assuredly guard it (from corruption) (Qur'an 15:9)
The promise made by Allah(SWT) in Qur'an 15:9 is obviously fulfilled in the undisputed purity of the Qur'anic text throughout the fourteen centuries since its revelation. However, what is often forgotten by many Muslims is that the divine promise also includes, by necessity, the Sunnah of the Prophet(P), because the Sunnah is the practical example of the implementation of the Qur'anic guidance, the wisdom taught to the Prophet(P) along with the scripture, and neither the Qur'an nor the Sunnah can be understood correctly without the other.
Allah(SWT) preserved the Sunnah by enabling the Companions and those after them to memorize, write down and pass on the statements of the Prophet(P), and the descriptions of his way, as well as to continue the blessings of practicing the Sunnah.
Later, as the purity of the knowledge of the Sunnah became threatened, Allah(SWT) caused the Muslim Ummah to produce individuals with exceptional memory skills and analytical expertise, who travelled tirelessly to collect thousands of narrations and distinguish the true words of prophetic wisdom from those corrupted by weak memories, from forgeries by unscrupulous liars, and from the statements of the large number of Ulama (scholars), the Companions and those who followed their way. All of this was achieved through precise attention to the words narrated, and detailed familiarity with the biographies of the thousands of reporters of hadith.
The methodology of the expert scholars of hadith in assessing the narrations and sorting out the genuine from the mistaken and fabricated, for ms the subject matter of the science of hadith. In this article a brief discussion is given of the terminology and classifications of hadith.
Components Of Hadith

A hadith is composed of three parts (see the figure [below]):
Matn (text), isnad (chain of reporters), and taraf (the part, or the beginning sentence, of the text which refers to the sayings, actions or characteristics of the Prophet(P), or his concurrence with others action). The authenticity of the hadith depends on the reliability of its reporters, and the linkage among them.
Classifications Of Hadith
A number of classifications of hadith have been made. Five of these classifications are shown in the figure [below], and are briefly described subsequently.
  1. According to the reference to a particular authority Four types of hadith can be identified.
    • Qudsi - Divine; a revelation from Allah(SWT); relayed with the words of the Prophet(P).
    • Marfu` - elevated; a narration from the Prophet(P), e.g., I heard the Prophet(P) saying ...
    • Mauquf- stopped: a narration from a companion only, e.g., we were commanded to ...
    • Maqtu` - severed: a narration from a successor.
  2. According to the links of isnad - interrupted or uninterrupted Six categories can be identified.
    • Musnad - supported: a hadith which is reported by a traditionalist, based on what he learned from his teacher at a time of life suitable for learning; similarly - in turn - for each teacher until the isnad reaches a well known companion, who in turn, reports from the Prophet(P).
    • Muttasil - continuous: a hadith with an uninterrupted isnad which goes back only to a companion or successor.
    • Mursal - hurried: if the link between the successor and the Prophet(P) is missing, e.g., when a successor says "The Prophet said...".
    • Munqati`- broken: is a hadith whose link anywhere before the successor (i.e., closer to the traditionalist recording the hadith) is missing.
    • Mu`adal - perplexing: is a hadith whose reporter omits two or more consecutive reporters in the isnad.
    • Mu`allaq - hanging: is a hadith whose reporter omits the whole isnad and quotes the Prophet(P) directly (i.e., the link is missing at the beginning).
  3. According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of isnad Five categories of hadith can be identified:
    • Mutawatir - Consecutive: is a hadith which is reported by such a large number of people that they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie, all of them together.
    • Ahad - isolated: is a hadith which is narrated by people whose number does not reach that of the mutawatir. It is further classified into:
      • Mash'hur - famous: hadith reported by more than two reporters.
      • `Aziz - rare, strong: at any stage in the isnad, only two reporters are found to narrate the hadith.
      • Gharib - strange: At some stage of the isnad, only one reporter is found relating it.
  4. According to the nature of the text and isnad
    • Munkar - denounced: is a hadith which is reported by a weak narrator, and whose narration goes against another authentic hadith.
    • Mudraj - interpolated: an addition by a reporter to the text of the hadith being narrated.
  5. According to the reliability and memory of the reporters This provides the final verdict on a hadith - four categories can be identified:
    • Sahih - sound. Imam al-Shafi`i states the following requiremetts for a hadith, which is not Mutawatir, to be acceptable "each reporter should be trustworthy in his religion; he should be known to be truthtul in his narrating, to understand what he narrates, to know how a different expression can alter the meaning, and to report the wording of the hadith verbatim, not only its meaning".
    • Hasan - good: is the one where its source is known and its reporters are unambiguous.
    • Da`if - weak: a hadith which fails to reach the status of Hasan. Usually, the weakness is: a) one of discontinuity in the isnad, in which case the hadith could be - according to the nature of the discontinuity - Munqati (broken), Mu`allaq (hanging), Mu`adal (perplexing), or Mursal (hurried), or b) one of the reporters having a disparaged character, such as due to his telling lies, excessive mistakes, opposition to the narration of more reliable sources, involvement in innovation, or ambiguity surrounding his person.
    • Maudu`- fabricated or forged: is a hadith whose text goes against the established norms of the Prophet's sayings, or its reporters include a liar. Fabricated hadith are also recognized by external evidence related to a discrepancy found in the dates or times of a particular incident.
http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Had...dsciences.html
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