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Old May 18, 2010, 07:20 PM
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Nafi Nafi is offline
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Default The Quran Science thread

This is mostly work from Raef Fanous, a physicist; with my editing and certain contributions.


Cosmology


Science says that the universe was created in a Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, is still expanding today, and billions of years from now it might re-collapse on itself due to its own gravity with its immense mass. Either it will collapse (Big Crunch), continue expanding forever or rip itself apart because of the forces behind its expansion (Big Rip). Muslims say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that on the first day of creation, God made the heavens and the Earth meshed together, tight and compact (Big Bang), continues to expand it into the universe we know today and at the last day God will recompress it into its original state (Big Crunch).

About the first day (Big Bang), Allah says:

Quote:
[Quran 21.30] Do not those who disbelieve see that the heavens and the Earth were meshed together then We ripped them apart? And then We made of water everything living? Would they still not believe?
About the expanding universe, Muslims say that Allah told them about this expansion 1400 years before it was discovered by Hubble’s observations of redshift.

Quote:
[Quran 51.47] And the heaven, We built it with craftsmanship and We are still expanding it.
Scientists have just confirmed the existence of "Dark Energy", a mysterious repulsive force that acts in opposite to gravity. As the distance increases, the attractive gravitational force decreases but this mysterious repulsive force increases. This repulsive force is pushing galaxies apart; the greater the distance the greater the repulsion. Scientists today do not know what makes up this "Dark Energy", but they know that it is causing the entire universe to expand at an increasing rate.

For the first seven billion years after the big bang the expansion of the universe slowed down because the attractive gravitational forces were stronger than this repulsive force. However as the distances between the galaxies increased the attractive gravitational forces weakened while this repulsive force became stronger. This made the expansion of the universe to enter an accelerating phase:

If you remind yourself how a rose opens up, the outer petals move outwards more than the inner petals. Imagine that those petals have galaxies on them and that we are at the center of the rose. Now imagine this rose opening up; the farther out the petals are the faster their recession away from the center (where we are). Well this is exactly how the universe expands around us; the farther out galaxies are from us the faster their recession away from us.


[Quran 55.37] If the heaven ripped and it were a rose like paint...


In this sura God assures skeptics about Paradise: if the heaven ripped open like a rose then Paradise will as surely contain so and so...

The Doppler Effect explains why an ambulance siren sounds different when it approaches you, and when it recedes from you. The sound pitch changes, right? Similarly when a light source approaches you or recedes from you its colours change. If it is approaching you the colours shift towards the blue, and if it is receding from you its colours shift towards the red side of the visible light spectrum; the faster it recedes the redder it appears. Today we know that galaxies are rushing away from us from red-shifting of their light. The more distant galaxies are; the more reddish their colours appear to us.

When you apply paint, the colours' intensity is not even but rather it changes with distance:


Similarly the more distant galaxies are the more reddish their colors appear to us, that is, there redness is a function of distance. This is because the farther galaxies are the faster they are receding from us (like a rose). The Quran describes it as: Rose like paint, that is, its colour varies with distance.

All observers anywhere in the universe also see the universe expanding away from them the same way (like a rose). Hence everyone in the universe thinks that he is at the centre of the Big Bang. This is because the Big Bang does not have a recognised centre in this sense. See, if you continue walking on Earth in the same direction you will circle Earth and eventually come back to where you started; right? Similarly when you continue travelling through the universe in the same direction you might come back to where you started; we still don't know this for sure. But what we are sure of is that every observer in the universe thinks that he is at the centre of the Big Bang; every observer in the universe sees the universe expanding away from him like a rose.

The future of the universe after hundreds of billions of years has three possible scenarios depending on this dark energy and the Universe’s mass, which is mostly made of dark mass.

Big Chill: This is where the proportion of Mass and the expanding Universe is such that the Universe’s expansion is steady and constant. Therefore it will remain to expand forever

Big Rip: This is where the force of expansion is so great, that the Universe will rip itself apart down to the level of atoms.

Big Crunch: The third scenario is if this dark energy decreases with time. This eventually leads to a slowing of the expansion of the universe followed by a re-collapse. This is called the "Big Crunch". In some ways this scenario resembles the Big Bang in reverse.



NASA recently ruled out the second scenario (No Big Rip; see also: Universe Today http://www.universetoday.com/2008/12...o-dark-energy/). This leaves the universe with only two possible endings: Big Chill or Big Crunch (first and third scenario), depending on what this Dark Energy turns out to be.

Moreover, scientists today use the same word "ripped" to describe how the universe expands (the same word that the Quran used 1400 years ago).

However, today this Dark Energy is ripping the universe very slowly (when compared to the Big Rip or the Inflation that occurred during the Big Bang).

This Dark Energy is causing spacetime to expand, that is, this Dark Energy is creating space everywhere each second
Quote:
[Quran 67.3-4][Allah] is the one who created seven superimposed Heavens. You do not see variations in the formations of the Compassionate, so redirect your sight, do you see any creation? 4 Then redirect your sight again, your vision returns to you in defeat and regret.
Today they looked again and found this created space indeed (along with Dark Matter).
In the Quran God also promises to make the Big Crunch:

Quote:
[Quran 21.104] On the day when We will fold the heaven, like the folder compacts the books, and as We originated the first creation We shall return it; a promise (binding on Us); surely We will deliver.

The Earth

Earth is spherical. Muslims say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that when the night and the day overlap, they make a ball (sphere):

Quote:
[Quran 35.5] [Allah] Created the heavens and the Earth in truth. He overlaps [Yukawer in Arabic] the night over the day and overlaps [Yukawer] the day over the night, and enslaved the sun and the moon. Everything moves to a prerecorded destiny [on the Preserved Tablet]. Is He not the Exalted, the Forgiver?
The Arabic word "Kura" means ball; its verb "Yukawer" means: to make into a ball. The Quran says that the overlapping of the night and the day makes a ball (sphere).
Science says that the rotation of Earth is slowing down, that is, days are getting longer. Muslims say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that Allah persistently asks more of the day and more of the night, that is, for the day to get longer

Quote:
[Quran 7.54] And your Lord, Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days and then settled on the Throne (as reference). [Allah] Covers the night with the day, asks for it persistently; and the sun and the moon and the stars enslaved by His orders. Is this not His creation and His command? Blessed be Allah the Lord of all the worlds.
Today most cosmologists believe that the Earth and the other planets originally formed out of a nebula that surrounded the Sun. This is thought to have occurred five billion years ago. Studies of radioactive material on earth show that it could not be much older than this, for if it were, that material would have all decayed and turned into lead by now. This estimation of the age of the earth is also confirmed by studies of the ages of rocks on earth. The oldest rocks, at Isua in Greenland and on the river Limpogo in South Africa, were formed at least 3.8 billion years ago. (New views on an old planet, Tjeerd H. Van Andel.)

This theory is known as the 'Modern Nebular Hypothesis' after the modification of the old 'Nebular Hypothesis'. But since the nebula consisted primarily of hydrogen and helium, this hypothesis does not seem to offer a satisfactory explanation as to how the heavier elements have formed on earth and also on the other rocky inner planets (Mercury, Venus and Mars). Certainly the outer gaseous planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus) are very similar in composition to the sun. The major proportion of their mass, like the sun, consists of hydrogen and helium and thus their formation is in line with the 'Nebular Hypothesis'. It is the presence of the heavier elements on the rocky planets that is still not satisfactorily explained.

The Quran presents a truly remarkable piece of information concerning the formation of these heavier elements. This information seems to account for the puzzle that remained unsolved by the 'Nebular Hypothesis'

In the Quran it is stated that iron was introduced on earth at a later stage than when the earth was initially formed.

Quote:
"…. and We have sent down iron, in it is great might" The Quran 57:25
The words "sent down" clearly indicate the prior existence of the earth . This startling information confirms the 'Nebular Hypothesis' and completes it

Up until the discovery of Pulsars it was thought that no atomic nucleus can survive this gravitational collapse of a massive star’s core. It was thought that the remnants of those collapsed cores consist of some electrons, some protons but predominantly neutrons (thus the name neutron stars). However the discovery of radio waves in pulsars means that neutron stars contain rotating iron cores! This means that the iron survived! Today we know that iron has the strongest bound nucleus among all elements. Although admittingly it was true, iron was used in war in the past, but at this time it was already 350 years after the Indians have discovered the advent of steel, which was far superior.

These sub-atomic particles are also mentioned in the Quran:

Quote:
[Quran 34:3]"There isn't hidden (from God) the least little atom in the heavens or earth, nor what is smaller (than the atom)."
This Quranic verse clearly indicates that the atom is not the smallest form of substance but that there are particles smaller than the atom. This might seem common knowledge today but was not so in the 7th century, where before Greek philosophers proposed that atoms are the smallest things in the world

Tectonics

Earth's crust has been slowly moving for billions of years. Not only mountains are still slowly moving but also whole continents. Muslims believe that God says:

Quote:
[Quran 27.88] You see the mountains and think they are firmly fixed: but they are moving away just like the clouds are moving away: (such is) the artistry of Allah, Who disposes of all things in perfect order: For He knows all what you do.
Origin of Life, Evolution and Asteroids

Quote:
[Quran 2.164] In the creation of the Heavens and the Earth; In the alternation of the night and the day; In the sailing of the ships through the sees with what benefits mankind; In the water which Allah sent down from the Heavens and brought with it life to Earth after being dead and gave life in it to every kind of land animal; And in directing the winds; And in the clouds that are enslaved between the Heavens and the Earth; [All these] are Signs for a people who comprehend

[Quran 24.43] Can you not see that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a pile? Then you see rain come out from within? And He sends down from heaven, mountains with ice inside them; that strike whomever He wishes or miss whoever He wishes; Its flash almost blinds you.
Quote:
Nasa’s discovery bolsters the theory that comets and asteroids crashing into Earth nearly four billion years ago seeded the planet with water and carbon-based molecules, both essential ingredients for life
http://news.discovery.com/space/aste...-organics.html


Celestial Motion


For centuries it was believed that Earth is fixed and the sun, moon and planets revolve around it. However 1400 years ago the Quran said that not only the sun and moon but even Earth moves in a designated path:

Quote:
Quran [39.5][Allah] Created the heavens and the Earth in truth. He overlaps [Yukawer in Arabic] the night over the day and overlaps [Yukawer] the day over the night, and enslaved the sun and the moon. ALL MOVE (Kullon Yajree كل يجري) to a prerecorded destiny. Is He not the Exalted, the Forgiver?
The Arabic word "Kura" means ball; its verb "Yukawer" means: to make into a ball. The Quran says that the overlapping of the night and the day makes a sphere (ball).

Also the Quran says that EVERYTHING MOVES: not only the sun and moon but everything including Earth. In Arabic grammar there is difference between the singular (one), binary (two) and plural (three or more). In binary mode ""Kulahuma Yajreean كلاهما يجريان" however the Quran says "Kullon yajree كل يجري" referring to the plural (three or more). Hence not only the sun and moon move because the reference is to three or more. So according to the Quran everything moves even the spherical Earth.

As the massive celestial bodies move in space, their immense gravity sucks in the small debris of rocks and gas. Do you know how to sweep the ground? Well this is how planets and stars sweep their paths

Quote:
[Quran 81.15-16] So I [Allah] shall swear by the planets that recede, 16 that move, that sweep (Kunnas in Arabic).
"Miknasa" in Arabic means a sweeping brush. "Kannasa" is the past tense of sweep. "Kunnas" means those who sweep. God swears by the planets that move and sweep.


Pulsars, Black Holes & Singularity


General relativity predicted the formation of black holes from neutron stars. As more matter falls into a neutron star its mass increases; and as its mass increases its gravity increases. A point will be reached where gravity would have grown so much that not even light could escape, thus a black hole forms.

Most neutron stars discovered today are in the form of radio pulsars. They are called radio pulsars because they emit radio waves; we can simply connect a radio telescope to a loud speaker and hear a pulsar. Pulsars sound like someone persistently knocking.

So in short, we can hear a pulsar knock; and if matter continues to fall into this pulsar a black hole will eventually form. Muslims say that this is what Allah says. The Quran describes a star by "The one who knocks" and says that it is "The one who makes a hole".

Quote:
[Quran 86.1-3]And the heaven and the "Knocker" (Tarek in Arabic) How could you know about the "Knocker"? The piercing star (Thakeb in Arabic).
The Arabic word "Thukb" means a hole; "Thakeb" means the one who makes the hole. The Quran is describing a knocking star that makes a hole.

All stars will eventually die. Stars with very large mass will collapse on themselves and become black holes. Even the remnants of smaller stars can merge with other stars that will eventually become black holes.... So black holes are the destiny of many stars. Actually our solar system formed out of debris of a star 100 times more massive than our sun that exploded and became a black hole. At the centre of black holes (collapsed stars) lies a location called the Singularity. An observer far away from a black hole sees the events near a black hole in slow motion. If he shines a beam of light into this black hole he will have to wait forever but still this beam of light will never reach the singularity. The singularity is a location in the future of stars where gravity is so strong it bends space and time they become indistinguishable. From general relativity we know that this is a location where the structure of space-time becomes singular (hence the name singularity). However singular (Ahad in Arabic) is one of God's 99 names. In the Quran God swears by the locations of stars which turned out to carry His own name.

Quote:
[Quran 56.75-77] I swear by the locations of stars, it is a great swear if you knew, it is a noble Quran.
Here God swears not by the stars but rather by their locations (mawakeh in Arabic). Today we know that the future of those locations is singular, that is, they carry God's own name: "Ahad"


Seas


The difference in temperature, salinity and CO2 concentrations in seas cause water to separate into layers. This was only known recently.

Quote:
[Quran 55.19-20]He [Allah] has made the two seas meet, between them a barrier that they don't transgress.
Not only light cannot reach deep waters but also the water layers down there are not flat but wavy, that is, the seas have internal waves just as they have surface waves.

Quote:
[Quran 24.40] Or like the depths of darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by clouds: depths of darkness, one above another: if a man stretches out his hand, he will not see it! If Allah does not give light to a person he will not have light!
The Quran talks about internal waves. Also, sunlight cannot penetrate more than few hundred meters into the seas. It is so dark down there that you cannot see your own hand.

Cloud Seeding

During cloud formation, water can become supercooled, that is, it can get below freezing point but remain not frozen! This stage is so unstable that we can add some catalyst molecules to trigger rain. Historically humans used silver iodide, frozen carbon dioxide and some salts to trigger rain. This is known as cloud seeding.

However nature uses different material to seed the clouds. Nature uses both sea salt and land dust to trigger rain: Wind at the surface of the seas causes waves to roll. Those waves release aerosols into the air carrying the sea salt. The wind carry both the sea salt and the land dust to the clouds. The sea salt and land dust cause the supercooled water to coalesce and trigger precipitation.

Quote:
[Quran 15:22]And We send the seeding winds, then cause the rain to descend from the sky, therewith providing you with water, though you are not the guardians of its stores
.


Atmospheric Pressure


Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude; The higher the altitude the more difficult breathing becomes. Muslims say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that as we ascend to the sky it becomes more difficult for us to breath:
Quote:
[Quran6.125] Those whom Allah wants to guide, He opens their chests to Islam; And those whom He wants to leave astray, He makes their chests tight and constricted, as if they are ascending to the sky: Such is the penalty of Allah on those who refuse to believe.
________________________________________
Brain Functions

For centuries it was thought that the frontal part of the human brain handled vision (simply because it is near the eyes). Today we know that this part handles speech, not vision. (the part that handles vision turned out to be at the rear of the brain.

The Quran says that disbelievers will be dragged from there liar forehead, that is, the speech part where they utter lies is at the forehead.

Quote:
[Qura 96.16] A lying sinful forehead.
________________________________________
Genetics

Females have XX chromosomes, that is, they can only give one X chromosome. But since males have XY chromosomes then men can either give the X or the Y chromosome. This means that it is actually the males who determine the sex of the baby (by giving either the X or the Y chromosome).

[Quran 53:45-46] And He (Allah) creates pairs, male and female, from semen emitted.
The Quran says that it is the semen that determines whether the baby is male or female. But since semen only comes from males then this means that it is the males that determine the sex of the baby

Embryology

Quote:
"He creates you in your mothers bellies in stages, creation after creation, in three veils of darkness." 39:6
We do not know when it was realized that human beings underwent development in the uterus (womb), but the first known illustration of a fetus in the uterus was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci in the 15th century. In the 2nd century A.D., Galen described the placenta and fetal membranes in his book "On The Formation of the Foetus." Consequently, doctors in the 7th century A.D. likely knew that the human embryo developed in the uterus. It is unlikely that they knew that it developed in stages, even though Aristotle had described the stages of development of the chick embryo in the 4th century B.C. The realization that the human embryo develops in stages was not discussed and illustrated until the 15th century.

After the microscope was discovered in the 17th century by Leeuwenhoek descriptions were made of the early stages of the chick embryo. The staging of human embryos was not described until the 20th century. Streeter (1941) developed the first system of staging which has now been replaced by a more accurate system proposed by O'Rahilly (1972).

"The three veils of darkness" may refer to: (l) the anterior abdominal wall; (2) the uterine wall; and (3) the amniochorionic membrane. Although there are other interpretations of this statement, the one presented here seems the most logical from an embryological point of view.


Figure 1. Drawing of a sagittal section of a female's abdomen and pelvis showing a fetus in utero. The "veils of darkness" are: (1) the anterior abdominal wall; (2) the uterine wall, and (3) the amniochorionic membrane.
"Then We placed him as a 'notfah' (tiny drop) in a 'qarar makeen' (well protected place of rest)." 23:13
The drop or nutfah has been interpreted as the sperm or spermatozoon, but a more meaningful interpretation would be the zygote which divides to form a blastocyst which is implanted in the uterus ("a place of rest"). This interpretation is supported by another verse in the Qur'an which states that "a human being is created from a mixed drop." The zygote forms by the union of a mixture of the sperm and the ovum ("The mixed drop").
Quote:
"Then We made the drop into a 'alaqah' (leech-like structure)." 23:14
The word "alaqah" refers to something that clings (like a leech or bloodsucker). This is an appropriate description of the human embryo from days 7-24 when it clings to the endometrium of the uterus, in the same way that a leech clings to the skin. Just as the leech derives blood from the host, the human embryo derives blood from the decidua or pregnant endometrium. It is remarkable how much the embryo of 23-24 days resembles a leech (Fig. 2). As there were no microscopes or lenses available in the 7th century, doctors would not have known that the human embryo had this leech-like appearance. In the early part of the fourth week, the embryo is just visible to the unaided eye because it is smaller than a kernel of wheat.



Figure 2. Top, a drawing of a leech or bloodsucker. Below, a drawing of a 24 day-old human embryo. Note the leech-like appearance of the human embryo at this stage.
Quote:
"Then of that leech-like structure, We made a 'mudghah' (chewed-shaped lump)." 23:14
This statement is also from 23:14. The Arabic word "mudghah" means "chewed substance or chewed lump." Toward the end of the fourth week, the human embryo looks somewhat like a chewed lump of flesh (Fig. 3). The chewed appearance results from the somites which resemble teeth marks. The somites represent the beginnings or primordia of the vertebrae.

Figure 3. Left, a plasticine model of the human embryo which has the appearance of chewed flesh. Right, a drawing of a 28 day-old human embryo showing several bead-like somites which resemble the teeth marks in the model shown to the left.
Quote:
"Then We made out of the chewed lump, bones, and clothed the bones in flesh." 23:14
This continuation of 23:14 indicates that out of the chewed lump stage, bones and muscles form. This is in accordance with embryological development. First the bones form as cartilage models and then the muscles (flesh) develop around them from the somatic mesoderm.

Quote:
"Then We developed out of it another creature." 23:14
These next words in 23:14 implies that the bones and muscles result in the formation of another creature. This may refer to the human-like embryo that forms by the end of the eighth week. At this stage it has distinctive human characteristics and possesses the primordia of all the internal and external organs and parts. After the eighth week, the human embryo is called a fetus. This may be the new creature to which the verse refers.

Quote:
"And He gave you hearing and sight and feeling and understanding." 32:9
These words in 32:9 indicates that the special senses of hearing, seeing, and feeling develop in this order, which is true. The primordia of the internal ears appear before the beginning of the eyes, and the brain (the site of understanding) differentiates last.

Quote:
"And We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term." 22:5
These words in 22:5 seem to imply that God determines which embryos will remain in the uterus until full term. It is well known that many embryos abort during the first month of development, and that only about 30% of zygotes that form, develop into fetuses that survive until birth. This verse has also been interpreted to mean that God determines whether the embryo will develop into a boy or girl.

The interpretation of the verses in the Qur'an referring to human development would not have been possible in the 7th century A.D. or even a hundred years ago. We can interpret them now because the science of modern Embryology affords us new understanding. Undoubtedly there are other verses in the Qur'an related to human development that will be understood in the future as our knowledge increases.

Honey Bees

The worker bees, those who gather pollen and make the honey, are actually all females. The male bees do not make honey. This was only known recently. However 1400 years ago the Quran refers to bees that generate the honey as females (the Arabic grammar is in the female mode):

[Quran 16.68-69] And your Lord (Allah) revealed to the bees: Build your hives in mountains, trees and in what people build. Then eat (for females) from every fruit and follow (for females) your Lord's enslaved paths, from their bellies (for females) exits drink of different colors, in it healing for man. These are signs for those who contemplate.

For the word "eat": "Kuli" is for females; "Kul" is for males. The Quran used "Kuli" (females).
For the word "follow a path": "Usluki" is for females; "Usluk" is for males. The Quran used "Usluki" (females).
For the word "their bellies": "butuniha" is for females; "butunihim" is for males. The Quran used "butuniha" (females)

Secrets of Pyramids

For centuries, Egyptologists and geologists thought that the Egyptian pyramids were made of limestone blocks (up to 70 tons) that were quarried by chiseling limestone. Workers then carried those blocks up the pyramids on ramps. This building procedure was thought to be so superhuman that it made the pyramids become one of the Seven Wonders of the World. However today electron microscopes revealed that the blocks at the top have chemistries found nowhere in nature. Those blocks at the top must have been baked and then cast like modern cement (not chiseled from existing limestone)

However 1400 years ago the Quran said that Pharaoh used baked clay (like modern cement; not chiselled limestone) to build their high rises:

Quote:
[Quran 28.38]And Pharaoh said to his people: "I have not known a god for you other than myself; so Haman, light me a fire to bake clay so that I could build a rise high enough, maybe I see Moses' god whom I think is a liar."
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Last edited by Nafi; May 19, 2010 at 05:33 AM..
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Old May 18, 2010, 07:21 PM
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General Relativity

Speed of light

NB: Ambitious theory

Video summary http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06NRxaRi1pw

(Muslims) believe that angels are creatures without conventional mass, and that God created them originally from light. They move at any speed from zero up to the speed of light. It is the angels who carry out God's orders. Those angels take their orders from a Preserved Tablet somewhere in outer space, and not from God's Throne. They commute to and from this Preserved Tablet to get their orders from God. In the following verse, the Quran describes how angels travel when they commute to and from this Tablet. And the speed at which they commute to and from this Tablet turned out to be the known speed of light:

Quote:
[Quran 32.5] (Allah) Rules the cosmic affair from the heavens to the Earth. Then this affair travels to Him a distance in one day, at a measure of one thousand years of what you count.
It is the angels who carry out these orders. People in this society in this era didn’t measure the distances in kilometers nor in miles but rather by how much time they needed to walk. For example, a village two days away meant a distance equivalent to walking for two days; ten days away meant a distance equivalent to walking for ten days... However in this verse the Quran specifies 1000 years of what they counted (not what they walked). Those people back then followed the lunar calendar and counted 12 lunar months each year. These months are related to the moon and not related to the sun. Hence in 1 day the angels will travel a distance of 1000 years of what they counted (the moon). Since this verse is referring to distance, then God is saying that angels travel in one day the same distance that the moon travels in 12000 lunar orbits. Outside the gravitational field of the sun this speed turned out to be the known speed of light.

Since we are considering 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day in free space (outside the gravitational field of the sun) then we have to remove the effects of the sun's gravity on the Earth-moon system:

If you spin on a chair, your legs tends to flay outwards. And that when your spin slows down your legs settle back inwards. This is the nature of centripetal forces. This is what also happens when the Earth-moon system gains or loses rotational kinetic energy, the distance to the moon changes (hence the length of the lunar orbit changes).

Do you know why the same half of the moon always faces Earth? The moon has been facing Earth like this for more than 4 billion years. Just like Earth rotates on its axis once every day with respect to stars, the moon also rotates on its axis with respect to stars. Since the moon keeps facing Earth this means that the moon needs to travel 360 degrees around Earth with respect to stars in order to rotate 360 degrees on its axis with respect to stars. When the moon first formed it was very close to Earth and it orbited Earth once every few hours, today this period is 27 days, and as the moon continues to recede this period will continue to increase; the greater the distance from Earth the greater this period becomes. When this period becomes 50 days, for example, this also means that it will take the moon 50 days to rotate 360 degrees on its axis with respect to stars. So as the moon recedes from Earth its spin with respect to stars slows down, that is, it loses rotational kinetic energy (this is different from moon's kinetic energy due to moon's motion around Earth). If the distance to Earth increases to infinity, the moon would stop spinning with respect to stars and hence its rotational kinetic energy decreases to zero. This proves that the moon's rotational kinetic energy is a function of the distance from Earth. Similarly, the total energy of the Earth-moon system is a function of the distance from the sun. Since the distance to the sun is not a constant then a definition using Lunar Orbits/Earth Day inside the gravitational field of the sun is impossible. However when the Earth-moon system exits the solar system (becomes isolated) 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day becomes equal to the speed of light.

Every point in this orbit has a certain magnitude and a certain direction. As the moon heads to the sun it speeds up, and as it heads away from the sun it slows down. This creates a sector of the orbit where the moon is speeding up:



But as Earth goes around the sun, the position of the sun relative to Earth with respect to stars is changing. This makes the sector where the moon is speeding up move forward inside the orbit such that it points to the sun again; similarly the sector where the moon is slowing down moves forward inside the orbit such that it points away from the sun again. Hence the entire orbit changes direction with respect to stars by the same angle it orbits the sun (twist). This means that the orbit is influenced by a net rotational force (like torque around Earth). As the distance to the sun increases to infinity, ø decreases to zero and lunar orbit loses this twist. When we vectorially remove the energy gained from this twist we can calculate the total energy and hence the length of the lunar orbit outside gravitational fields
Distances:

Distance traveled by angels in one day = 12000 x Length of lunar orbit.
C t' = 12000 L'
Where:

C Is the speed of angels, which we intend to calculate and then compare to the known speed of light (no external forces, no acceleration, no deceleration).
t' Is Earth Day outside gravitational fields i.e. time for one rotation of Earth about its axis with respect to the stars.
L' Is the length of the lunar orbit outside gravitational fields (no external forces, no acceleration, no deceleration).

Time: This table below shows the lunar month and Earth day in both sidereal system (with respect to stars) and synodic (with respect to sun):

Period Synodic (sun) Sidereal (stars)
Earth day t 24 hours = 86400 sec 23 h 56 min 4.0906 sec = 86164.0906 sec
Lunar Month T 29.53059 synodic days 27.321661 synodic days = 655.71986 hours


But no matter what system you use when the Earth-moon system exits the solar system the synodic periods become equal to the sidereal periods. Why you may ask, because the sun becomes just another star.

When the Earth-moon system is still inside the solar system the position of the sun relative to Earth with respect to stars changes; this means that the moon has to make more than 360 degrees with respect to stars in order to point to the sun again. However when the Earth-moon system exits the solar system the position of the sun relative to Earth with respect to stars remains the same, that is, the moon now only has to make 360 degrees with respect to stars in order to point to the sun again (the synodic periods become equal to the sidereal periods). This means that the lunar month with respect to the sun becomes equal to lunar month with respect to stars and Earth day with respect to the sun becomes equal to Earth day with respect to stars. So the 1000 lunar years with respect to sun become equal to 12000 lunar months with respect to stars.

Every new moon (29.5 days) the moon will not return to the same point in the orbit (it will be at a different point). The moon returns to the same point in the orbit after only 27.3 days. When astronomers study the energy of orbits they use the sidereal system, that is, the moon has to return to the same position with respect to stars and not return to the same position with respect to the sun. When the moon returns to the same point with respect to stars the Earth-moon system would have moved 26.9 degrees around the sun (not 29.1 degrees).

In general relativity, the local inertial frames (where the measured speed of light is 299792.458 km/sec) are actually frames non-rotating with respect to stars (not non-rotating with respect to sun). If these frames are rotating with respect to stars then the measured speed of light would not be 299792.458 km/sec. Hence inside the gravitational field of the sun 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day make 11% difference with 299792.458 km/sec when compared in a local frame non-rotating with respect to stars (sidereal system). A local frame non-rotating with respect to sun (synodic system) would be rotating with respect to stars and hence in this frame the measured speed of light is not 299792.458 km/sec in the first place. Some skeptics use the synodic system (rotating frame with respect to stars) and then compare it to the speed of light in a local inertial frame (non-rotating with respect to stars) however this comparison is invalid. Why? Because this is the same location but two different frames.

See the problem with the synodic system at footnote [2]

Length of Lunar Orbit:
Length of lunar orbit = Velocity x Time (L = V T)

The velocity of the moon is not a constant. NASA measured the instantaneous velocity of the moon at various points throughout its orbit. These measurements show that the velocity of the moon varies considerably (from 3470 km/hr up to 3873 km/hr); which means that the moon accelerates and decelerates continuously. The average lunar velocity is Vavg = 3682.8 km/hr (1.023 km/sec).

The lunar orbit relative to Earth is a low eccentricity ellipse. Most astronomers calculate the length of the lunar orbit manually by the following equivalent circle method:
L = V T = 2 π R
V = 2 π R / T

However this velocity is under the influence of the gravitational pull of the sun. We can vectorially calculate the velocity of the moon relative to Earth without the gravitational pull of the sun and hence the isolated length of the lunar orbit: Displacement is a vector (has magnitude and direction) and from this vector we get the velocity vector (magnitude and direction); from this velocity vector we get the kinetic energy. If external work is done we end up with a resultant displacement vector, resultant velocity vector and resultant kinetic energy. In our case we have to backtrack.

The work done by the gravitational field of the sun by creating a net rotational force on the lunar orbit (twist) is:



Without the sun (isolated Earth-moon system) the moon's isolated vector remains in the original direction with respect to stars (no twist); but with the sun (compounded system), the moon's compounded vector changes direction by angle ø with respect to stars each cycle around Earth (twist). This means that the moon's orbital energy is the sum of the energy acquired from this twist plus the intrinsic energy of Earth-moon system (kinetic energy of Earth's spin transferred to the lunar orbit by ocean friction).

Ocean Friction:

The oceanic high tides and low tides; they are caused by lunar gravity. This figure teaches you how ocean friction transfers the kinetic energy of Earth's spin to the lunar orbit:



As the moon acquires more energy from Earth's spin it does not actually speed up, instead it slows down because it orbits at a higher altitude (R' increases). (If Earth were spinning in the opposite direction the reverse process would have happened; the moon would have lost altitude and eventually crashed into Earth.)

Today's lunar orbit is a very low eccentricity ellipse (very close to a perfect circle) but when the moon first formed it was a very high eccentricity ellipse. The eccentric ellipse back then had a point very close to Earth and another point very far out. When the moon was nearest to Earth inside the ellipse the gravitational forces were stronger and hence more energy was transferred to the moon when it was closer to Earth than when the moon was farther out inside the ellipse. This made the moon recede more when it was closer to Earth than when it was farther out inside the ellipse. This difference in recession rates smoothed out the differences between the closest and the farthest points in the orbit (this is why today's lunar orbit is very close to a perfect circle). So for each direction the recession has different magnitude. Since this recession has magnitude and direction then it is a displacement vector. However in every direction this displacement vector is normal to the rotational force around Earth (always at right angles with the rotational force around Earth, 90 degrees). Thus the sum of these two vectors is determined by the Pythagorean Theorem:

Hence cosø is the only solution to this three-body problem.
Isolated Earth-Moon System:

The lunar orbital radius (R) is a function of total energy, however the total orbital energy comes form two sources: ocean friction and gravitational twist (two sources, not one). Since the distance to the sun is not a constant then as the distance to the sun increases to infinity the lunar orbit loses this twist; but without the energy gained from this twist the orbital radius decreases to R' = Rcosø (see proof at footnote [3]). Hence the moon's isolated orbital length becomes L' = 2πR' = 2πRcosø = Lcosø (i.e. 12000 L' / t' = 12000 Lcosø / t').

Today when the moon makes 360 degrees around Earth with respect to stars the Earth-moon system moves 26.92952225 degrees around the sun. Hence the lunar orbit's twist angle ø = 26.92952225 degrees. We can calculate ø from the period of one heliocentric revolution of the Earth-moon system (365.2421987 days):
ø = (360 degrees / 365.2421987 synodic days) x 27.32166088 synodic days = 26.92952225 degrees

Similarly, Earth's spin slows down by 6 seconds i.e. the isolated Earth day t' becomes 86170.43114 sec (see proof at footnote [4]).
Compare:

So finally we can check the accuracy of this equation in the Quran:
C t' 12000 L'
The distance traveled by light in one Earth Day = C t' = 299792.458 km/sec x 86170.43114 sec = 25833245358 km
The distance traveled by angels = 12000 L' = 12000 x 3682.8 km/hr x 655.71986 hr x cos(26.92952225) = 25836303825 km
By dividing the two distances we get the ratio of 1.00011839267.
Difference = 0.01%


Constant:

Since the distance to the sun is not a constant [5] then if it is defined inside the gravitational field of the sun then this definition will be wrong with time; however since it is defined in free space (outside the gravitational field of the sun) then this definition will be true forever:

Ocean friction is causing the rotation of Earth to slow down, that is, for the days to get longer (t' increases). And as Earth's rotation slows down the moon recedes (R' increases):

c = 12000 L' / t' = 12000 2 π R' / t'

Both R' and t' are increasing but due to a fundamental law in astrophysics the ratio R' / t' remains the same: The tidal force decelerating Earth is the same force pushing the moon. Since the force pushing the moon is gravitational, then it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the moon. Similarly, this same force decelerating Earth is proportional to the change in kinetic energy in Earth's spin, that is, it is inversely proportional to the square of Earth day. This makes the square of the distance to the moon to be directly proportional to the square of Earth day. This implies that the distance to the moon remains proportional to Earth day. Hence R' / t' is a constant equal to 3.976120966 (R' / t' = R cosø / t'). This makes the equation in the Quran c = 12000 L' / t' to be composed only of constants, with no variables. Hence, 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day is a constant forever.

4.52 billion years ago the moon formed when a planet the size of Mars collided with Earth. On impact, Earth gained angular momentum (rotational speed). This angular momentum has been slowly transferring to the lunar orbit. On impact of that planet with Earth, the molten debris flung with a certain escape velocity and sucked vaporized water and some gases from Earth's atmosphere. This debris clustered to form the moon. But the moon couldn't maintain those gases because its gravity was extremely weak and it didn't have a strong magnetic shield; so it lost those gases and settled in orbit without this mass. The equation in the Quran c = 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day has been true in the isolated system ever since the moon first lost this mass, that is, since the early creation of the Earth-moon; is true today and as the moon continues to recede this equation in the Quran will always be true.
To learn why there are two tidal bulges, one facing the moon and another one opposite to it, see footnote [6].

Lunar Orbits/Earth Day is common to all observers; Km/sec is not.
12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day = 299,792.458 km/s is the speed of light for observers standing outside gravitational fields and looking at light also traveling outside gravitational fields. But an observer near a black hole for example sees the speed of light outside gravitational fields a zillion km/s. This is because the velocity of light appears to vary with the intensity of the gravitational field (See proof at footnote [7]).
From General Relativity we know that an observer standing outside gravitational fields looks at events inside gravitational fields and sees them in slow motion. When he steps inside those gravitational fields he sees them in normal speeds. But now he looks back at where he was outside gravitational fields and sees the events there in fast motion. In our case the event is the moon orbiting Earth. When an observer in stronger gravitational fields, near a black hole for example, looks at the Earth-moon system he does not see the moon orbiting Earth once every month; instead he sees the moon orbiting Earth once every few seconds; he also sees the length of the lunar orbit to be much longer than we see it. This is because the gravitational field that he is in causes his clock to run slower and his ruler to shrink.

Not only will observers in different gravitational fields not agree on the time period for the lunar orbit but also they will not agree on the length of the lunar orbit either. By using classical orbital mechanics we discovered that all observers will see the speed of light outside gravitational fields equal to 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day; but from General Relativity we know that they will never agree on a value in km/sec. An observer near a black hole for example sees the speed of light outside gravitational fields a zillion km/s, but still equal to 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day! This means that if the speed of angels outside gravitational fields were defined in km/sec then it would have appeared to vary for observers in different gravitational fields; however since this speed was defined in Lunar Orbits/Earth Day then it will never appear to vary to anyone because 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day is common to all observers. Hence the Quran gave us a better definition for time and distance: A definition common to all observers, forever.

Quote:
[Quran 10.5] It is He (Allah) who made the sun to shine and the moon to light, and destined it in stages; that you may learn to count the years and the mathematics. Allah only created this in truth. He details His Signs for those who are knowledgeable (scientists)
Relativistic Time Dilation

For an object to move it needs to accelerate; but acceleration causes clocks to run slower, the stronger the acceleration the slower the clock.

The Quran states another verse in which angels traveling at a certain velocity, appear to experience slower time than humans. But this agrees with Einstein’s theory of special relativity, which says that a faster moving object appears to experience slower time. Muslims use Einstein’s theory of special relativity with the following verse in the Quran to assert that angels indeed accelerate up to the speed of light:
Quote:
[Quran 70.4] The angels and the Spirit ascend to Him in a day, the measure of which is fifty thousand years.
Here angels will experience 1 day while humans will measure it as 50,000 years (time vs. time and not time vs. distance as the previous lunar verse). However, according to the theory of special relativity, given this time difference (time dilation), we can calculate the speed at which that object travelled. We can verify if those angels really accelerate up to the speed of light, as claimed by Muslims, or not. Outside gravitational fields it is:



(Where ∆to is the time measured for a mover by a mover; ∆t is the time measured for a mover by a stationary frame; v is the velocity of the mover relative to the stationary observer):

∆to is the time experienced by angels (1 day).
∆t is the time as measured by humans (50,000 lunar years x12 lunar months/lunar year x 27.321661 days/lunar month).
v is the velocity of angels in this case (which we intend to calculate and then compare to the known speed of light).
c is the nominal speed of light, 299792.458 km/s.
From the above equation we can solve for the unknown velocity



This time dilation (time difference) shows that angels indeed accelerate to relativistic speeds; outside gravitational fields this is the same speed calculated from the previous lunar verse also outside gravitational fields.

We cannot calculate our local speed of light from this time dilation however we can calculate at what percentage of the speed of light those angels are traveling relative to an observer on Earth. By this we can compare a time dilation (50,000 years vs. one day) with a speed (12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day). We can do this by translating both of them to a common speed in km/sec. Outside gravitational fields 50,000 years vs. one day shows angels traveling at 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day; it is the same speed in km/sec. However inside gravitational fields 50,000 years vs. one day shows angels crossing a wormhole at a few meters/sec. This is a picture of a wormhole. The Quran says that angels use these wormholes to reach any place in the universe. An observer outside gravitational fields sees those angels passing by him at 99.99999...% of the speed of light (relativistic speeds, very close to the local speed of light), that is at 299792.457999...km/s. But when those angels enter the gravitational field of a wormhole this observer still sees those angels entering the wormhole at 99.99999...% of the speed of light however that would no longer be at 299792.457999...km/s. This is because the speed of light is a variable depending upon the reference frame of the observer. If he sees the speed of light in a wormhole at 10 meters/sec, for example, then he would see those angels traveling at only 9.999999...meters/sec, flapping their wings in slow motion, reddish in color and very dim (and in turn they would see him in fast motion, bluish in color and very bright).

A smaller time dilation (say 100 or 1000 years vs. one day) can also occur if we stand on Earth and angels stand on a pulsar or a neutron star (or resist their fall into a pulsar, see Gravitational Time Dilation below). This makes their velocity relative to us to be zero (and not 299792.457999... km/s). Naturally occurring wormholes connect distant black holes; however at a lower time dilation (100 or 1000 years vs. one day) the two entrances of the wormhole cannot connect; hence a wormhole cannot form. So with the time dilation stated in the Quran (50,000 years vs. 1 day) and the fact that angels are moving then those angels have to be crossing a wormhole. The pulsar scenario or any other combination cannot do.
Gravitational Time Dilation
Clocks run slower in stronger gravitational fields (near bigger mass).

Muslims believe that Paradise and Hell are both much bigger and much more massive than Earth (but still much smaller than God's Throne). The theory of general relativity says that time should pass slower near an object more massive than Earth (clocks run slower in stronger gravitational fields). So according to general relativity, time should pass in Paradise/Hell much slower than on Earth. Muslims say that this is what Allah says. It is stated in the Quran that 1 day in Paradise/Hell measures a 1000 years on Earth:

Quote:
[Quran 22.47] They challenge you to bring forth that torture [in Hell] and Allah will not break His promise; a day of your Lord [Paradise/Hell promise] is like a thousand years of what you count.
Here God promises those who do not believe in Hell and punishment that each day of their torture in Hell will measure a thousand years on Earth. So according to the Quran, time passes faster on Earth than in Paradise/Hell. But this agrees with the theory of general relativity which says that time passes slower near bigger mass. Paradise and Hell are much more massive than Earth and time should pass there much slower than on Earth.

Christians believe that God created the universe in 6 earthly days and rested on the 7th. Moslems believe that 6 days passed at God's Throne but we experienced 13.7 billion years on Earth:

Moslems believe that God is not bound to His Throne; rather He created it and set it as a reference. The Quran says that God's Throne is even wider than the whole universe; so how about the mass of God's Throne? God's Throne is much more massive than Earth. Time should pass there much slower than on Earth:

Our solar system is 4.5672 ± 0.0006 billion years old. Earth started accreting concurrently with the sun and our neighbouring planets 4.5672 billion years ago. However the universe is 13.7 ± 0.2 bln years old. This places the age of Earth at one third the age of the universe (4.5672 bln/13.7 bln = 1/3). Moslems say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that in God's Throne time Earth is 2 days old while the Heavens, Earth and everything in between are 6 days old (2/6 = 1/3):

Quote:
[Quran 50.38]We [Allah] created the heavens and the Earth and all what's between them in six days, and We were not touched by fatigue.

[Quran 41.9]Say: "Is it that you deny Him [Allah] who created the Earth in two days? And you claim others to be equal to Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds."
When God says that He created the Heavens, Earth and EVERYTHING IN BETWEEN in six days this means that He is referring to the period of existence. Earth has been in existence for 2 days (out of 6).

In God's Throne time, Earth is 2 days old while the Heavens, Earth and everything in between are 6 days old. This makes the age of Earth to be one third the age of the universe (2/6 = 1/3). Similarly in Earth time, the age of Earth is 4.5672 billion years while the age of the universe is 13.7 billion years; this is also one third (4.5672 bln/13.7 bln = 1/3). So it is the same ratio in Earth time or in God's Throne time [8]. The theory of general relativity explains why time at God's Throne passes slower than on Earth. General relativity explains why 6 days passed at God's Throne but we measured it as 13.7 billion years (that is each day at God's Throne measures around 2.28 billion years on Earth).

So according to the Quran: (The Christian Bible puts the creation of Earth on day one; making the age of Earth equal to the age of the universe)

God's Throne > Paradise/Hell > Earth
The smaller the mass, the faster the time
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Naturally occurring wormholes connect distant black holes.

Look up to the night sky and select a star as a destination. Can anyone reach this star by just walking few steps?

General relativity explained a mechanism to contract this huge distance into few meters. Albert Einstein called this mechanism ‘bridges’ in space-time. Today, scientists call them wormholes. A wormhole would act as a shortcut connecting two distant regions in the universe.

A wormhole contracts the distance between two doorways placed separately anywhere in the universe. Example, consider a galaxy 100 million light years away. When you look today from Earth to that galaxy, you will not see it as it is today, but rather as it was 100 million years ago. This is because light took 100 million years to travel all that distance. But if you take a journey inside a wormhole from Earth to that galaxy, you would reach that galaxy today. So when you reach it today, you will see it as it is today, not as it was 100 million years ago. So if you use a wormhole, events at that galaxy (your destination) would appear as if in fast forward (from 100 million years ago till today).

When you reach that galaxy today and look back at Earth, you would not see Earth as it is today; instead you would see Earth as it was 100 million years ago (you would see the dinosaurs). This is because light took 100 million years to reach there. So as you use a wormhole, events at Earth (your departure) would appear as if in fast rewind (from today till 100 million years ago).

On the return journey, events on Earth (destination) would appear as if in fast forward (from 100 million years ago till today); while the events at that galaxy (departure) would appear as if in fast rewind (from today till 100 million years ago). This is not time travel; this is just a consequence of the length contraction inside a wormhole.[/left]



Physicists know how a wormhole works but have never actually used one. Do you remember how a frictionless roller coaster works? That is, you start high and slow then you go down and fast but when you come back up again to your previous height you return to your previous slow speed? Well, the wormhole is the most efficient roller coaster you can imagine. Energy is not required to move through the wormhole, that is, you can simply switch off your rockets. Gravity accelerates you and pulls you through and then expels you the other side. You will feel like being swept by waves at the beach; nothing more.

On your way through, gravity causes your clock to run slower and your ruler to shrink. Distant observers see you accelerating to relativistic speeds; as a result, your energy (and mass) increase dramatically in their view; but when you get out the other side everything returns back to normal (your clock, ruler, everything relative to you).



God gave this method of transportation to his angels throughout the universe. The Quran calls them ‘Ma'arej معارج’ and describes how angels use them for long distance travel. Today Muslims know that these ‘Ma'arej’ is what scientists call wormholes


[Quran 70.1-4] Someone asked about the penalty that will befall 2 the unbelievers; (A penalty) that has none to ward off; 3 (a penalty) from Allah (who owns) wormholes [Ma'arej in Arabic] 4 The angels and the Spirit ascend to Him in a day, the measure of which is fifty thousand years.


Any object passing through this wormhole will also experience this same time dilation (one day inside wormhole vs. 50,000 years on Earth) and not just those angels. This time dilation does not say how long it takes you to cross the wormhole, it just says that when you pass through the wormhole you age by this ratio. This space is called hyperspace (برزخ)

God says that those wormholes are doors in the heaven that contract interstellar distances into walking distances; the resulting scenery is bizarre: God says that those who do not believe in the message will not believe it even if He showed them a bigger sign. He created beautiful towering structures in the heavens. If He opens for those nonbelievers a door in heaven and lets them continue passing through it to those distant structures, they would not believe that they really got there by simply walking few steps. Instead they would think that they are just optical illusions

[Quran 15.13-16] They do not believe the Message, like those who preceded them; 14 Even if We [Allah] opened upon them from the heaven a door and they continued passing through it 15 they would say ‘Our sight is bedazzled, rather we have been bewitched’ 16 It is We [Allah] who have made towering structures in the heavens and made them beautiful for beholders. 17 And We protected them from every evil spirit accursed.

Here, they wouldn’t believe their own eyes thinking that what they see is not real. They wouldn’t believe that they got to those heavenly structures by simply walking few steps. But God insists that what they see is real and not illusions (that is, they really got there).

The Quran says that those heavenly doors are galactic shortcuts to distant places in the universe. Angels guard those heavenly doors 'from every evil spirit accursed'. Muslims believe that angels use these doors for long distance travel. Angels can accelerate up to the speed of light for domestic travel; but they use these wormholes to reach any place in the universe before you finish reading this sentence.

Muslims also believe that wormholes are not strictly for the use of angels. Their prophet used a wormhole once in the ‘Israa & Me'raj’ (Me'raj معراج is singular of Ma'arej) (Quran 17.1).



Here God promises to make the Big Crunch not by gravity but rather by folding the Heavens like a book, that is, by the same mechanism He controls wormholes. This means that this Big Crunch can begin and end in a fraction of a second!

You might question how could this Big Crunch happen in just a fraction of a second? Wouldn't that be faster than the speed of light? Isn't that a contradiction to special relativity which says that nothing can go faster than the speed of light? Well yes it is faster than the speed of light, but the Big Bang itself turned out to be faster than the speed of light! The Big Bang started from a cosmic singularity and then expanded much faster than speed of light. During the Big Bang a process called "INFLATION" occurred. A fraction of a second (10-38 sec) after the cosmic singularity was created inflation started. During inflation, the size of the entire universe increased from an initial size smaller than the size of an atomic nucleus (10-23 millimeters in diameter) to maybe the size of our galaxy (one hundred thousand light years across). The duration of this inflation was only a fraction of a second (10-35 sec). So the Big Bang itself was a zillion times faster than the speed of light. This is not a contradiction to special relativity because spacetime itself expanded. In God's promise of the Big Crunch spacetime itself will contract, that is, it is inflation but in reverse.

Our observable universe (the one we can detect with today's equipment) consists roughly of 100 billion galaxies with each galaxy consisting of about 100 billion stars. (Number of observable stars = 100bln x 100bln; that's one with 22 zeroes next to it). If you can count 23,000 stars per second you will need more than 13 billion years to finish counting!!! This observable universe is just a fraction of the entire universe. After this Big Crunch is over the entire universe would be squeezed into a space smaller than the size of an atomic nucleus; just as it all started in the Big Bang.



Gravitational Lensing, Dark Matter and Multiverse


Scientists have just confirmed the existence of Dark Matter. This mysterious Dark Matter is invisible however it provides the bulk of gravity that holds galaxies (not the regular matter that forms stars and planets). This invisible Dark Matter has weird collision properties (collisionless). Simply put: we cannot see Dark Matter nor collide with it but we can detect its gravity; hence its mass.



In this image, two huge clusters of invisible Dark Matter (in blue) clashed with each other. With each cluster having a mass of 10,000 galaxies (each cluster a quadrillion times the mass of the Sun, 1015)!!! (However upon impact, instead of disintegrating into smaller pieces, they passed through each other unscathed! This means that they did not collide with each other either! They simply passed through each other!!!
In order to explain why this invisible Dark Matter neither collided with each other, nor did it collide with us but still we detected its gravity, physicists and cosmologists are working on theories with extra dimensions:

"This means that the world at very small scales is not made up of particles living in three spacial dimensions, but perhaps strings and branes living in nine dimensions. String theories are the most active area of research in physics today..."

"Gravity, Black Holes, and the Very Early Universe"; T.Chow, Springer 2008 (p. 108)
Traditionally scientists thought that we live in a four dimensional universe: Time and the usual three spacial dimensions of length, width and height (x,y,z). However today there is evidence for six extra spacial dimensions. So we cannot see nor collide with this Dark Matter because it is mass in the remaining six extra dimensions.
According to the Quran, we cannot see nor collide with Jinn but they have weight:
[Quran 55.31] We [Allah] will settle your affair, both you of weight (man and jinn)
The Jinn have weight means that we can detect their gravity and they can detect our gravity. So according to the Quran we cannot see the Jinn nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity.

Just as the Jinn is of different type that we cannot see nor collide with but we can detect their gravity, there are six other Heavens that we cannot see nor collide with either but we can detect their gravity, superimposed above the visible one:
Quote:
[Quran 41.12] So [Allah] decreed them as seven heavens (one above the other) in two days and revealed to each heaven its orders. And We [Allah] adorned the lowest heaven with lights, and protection. Such is the decree of the Exalted; the Knowledgeable.
According to the Quran, only the lowest heaven has visible light. Note that visible light cannot interact with Dark Matter conventionally. This means that this Dark Matter exists in the six Heavens superimposed above the lowest one. Also according to the Quran, each of these remaining six Heavens is of a different type and each has its own planets like Earth:

Quote:
[Quran 65.12] Allah is the one who created seven Heavens and from Earth like them (of corresponding type); [Allah’s] command descends among them so that you may know that Allah is capable of anything and that Allah knows everything.
Earth is not a unique planet in Islam. Other planets like Earth do exist throughout the other six Heavens. It is just that we cannot see them nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity.

God swears that someday we will travel to one of those six extra superimposed dimensions:

Quote:
[Quran84.16-18]I swear by the afterglow of sunset... You will ride one layer from another layer.(لتركبن طبقا عن طبق)
Here "Tabak طبق" is a noun meaning "a layer". The adjective "Tibak طباق" means "superimposed" and is used in describing the seven heavens "سبع سموات طباق". In the Quran there are seven superimposed heavens. These are the extra spacial dimensions.

General relativity predicted gravitational lensing, that is, the gravitational field generated by a galaxy causes the light passing through it to bend (change direction). Since this Dark Matter does not emit any light, scientists can map its location by using gravitational lensing, that is, by detecting where light is bending in places where it shouldn't. In the above images and video light gets bent by invisible dark matter. Moslems say that this is how God challenges nonbelievers to detect the remaining six superimposed Heavens:
Quote:
[Quran 67.3-4][Allah] is the one who created seven superimposed Heavens (سبع سموات طباق). You do not see variations in the formations of the Compassionate, so redirect your sight, do you see any creation? (Futtur in Arabic) 4 Then redirect your sight again, your vision returns to you in defeat and regret.
Futtur in Arabic فطور means creation out of nothing (it does not mean "rip"). "redirect your sight" this is light changing direction.

From a physics point of view, we are not living in a "Universe" but rather in a "Multiverse"; several universes superimposed above each other. Gravity is the only thing shared between these parallel universes:

The invisible Dark Matter is simply mass in other dimensions. In all 5 versions of String Theory there are 10 dimensions: "Time" plus the usual three spacial dimensions (x,y,z) plus six extra spacial dimensions making a total of ten dimensions (1 time + 9 spacial = 10 dimensions). Other competing theories like M-Theory has one extra spacial dimension (making the total 11 dimensions), however this extra spacial dimension is for membranes (the Big Bang was a result of a collision of membranes...). Currently in all competing theories this Dark Matter is mass in six extra spacial dimensions.

Today we are sure that we are not living in a "Universe" but rather in a "Multiverse". No physicist today believes that we are living in the three-dimensional universe of earlier scientists had conceived.

You might ask how does those six extra spacial dimensions look like:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lWGb-...layer_embedded

Extra dimensions are tiny and curled up at each point in space. To envision a single extra dimension imagine the ant in the above video shrinking billions of times. Then this ant becomes small enough for transition to the extra circular dimension (like a roller coaster):



However instead of one extra circular dimension there are six dimensions and not necessarily circular; however they are all curled up at each point in space. The ant would encounter multiple routes like this:



If the ant grows back to its original size while it is still in one of those extra dimensions it will stay in that dimension. We would no longer see the ant nor collide with it but we would still detect its gravity. If the ant was travelling from Earth to Mars it would still reach Mars on time however it will not collide with Mars but rather pass right through it.
On the other hand God swears by the heaven that has weaves:

Quote:
[Quran 51.7]And the heaven that has weaves (Hubuk in Arabic).
Hubuk is plural of Habka which means a weave. Doesn't the route that this ant need to take look like a weave? Of course. Actually those Seven Heavens (Multiverse) are parallel universes woven together (literally)

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Old May 18, 2010, 07:26 PM
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Footnotes;
[1] It is the angels who execute Gods orders:
[Quran 79.5] Execute orders (Mudaberat Amran in Arabic)
"Mudaberat" in Arabic means execute and "Amr" means order. These exact two words are also used in describing the rate at which God's orders are executed:
[Quran 32.5] (Allah) Rules the cosmic affair (Yudaber Al-Amr in Arabic) from the heavens to the Earth. Then this affair travels to Him a distance in one day, at a measure of one thousand years of what you count.
Both these verses use the same words and both refer to angels. "Araj" means a man with a lame leg; "Yaruj" means a man stepping. This verse says that angels are taking steps: indicating motion of angels. Their motion in one day is equal to 1000 years of what people back then counted (the moon).
About the Preserved Tablet:
[Quran 85.21-22] But it is a Glorious Quran. 22 Inscribed on a Preserved Tablet.
Moslems believe that Archangel Gabriel got the Quran to their prophet from this Preserved Tablet:
[Quran 15.8-11] We only send down the angels in Truth; if they were not (in truth), no respite would they have 9 We have sent down the Message; and We will preserve it 10 We did send Messengers before you among the religious sects of the old 11 But never came a Messenger to them but they mocked him.
The Quran and all the instructions to all angels were inscribed on this Preserved Tablet before the creation of Earth started. They commute to and from this Tablet to get their orders from God. The angels were originally made of light, and the speed at which they commute to and from this Tablet turned out to be the known speed of light (the Preserved Tablet is itself outside gravitational fields).
[2] What would happen if Earth suddenly stopped in its track while orbiting the sun? Earth would plummet into the sun, right? If it were not for distant stars then how would you know that Earth is orbiting the sun? Maybe it is the sun that is orbiting Earth. Or better yet, maybe Earth and sun are both fixed in their positions. So how do you know? It is the background of distant stars that tells you which is orbiting which.

Our physics today simply does not work in the synodic system. For example, this equation gives you the distance to the moon by simply knowing the sidereal lunar month (27.3 days):


f you use the time for synodic lunar month (29.5 days) it gives you the wrong distance to the moon (consequently wrong energy, wrong momentum...). But what you should keep in mind is that the equations in the sidereal system have no counterpart in the synodic system.

Although the moon keeps facing Earth it is actually spinning with respect to distant stars. Since the moon is spinning then it should bulge at the equator, right? However an observer on Earth sees the bulge but does not see the spin of the moon. When we calculate the bulge from spin with respect to Earth we get the wrong value (does not match observation). When we calculate the bulge from spin with respect to the sun we also get the wrong value. However when we calculate the bulge from spin with respect to distant stars we get the correct value. This should tell you that the bulge is a consequence of the spin with respect to distant stars (neither with respect to Earth nor with respect to the sun). This is why classical orbital mechanics (and general relativity) are based on the sidereal system, that is, rotation (and precession) are with respect to stars (this is different than motion relative to stars).

Some skeptics argue that due to Earth's motion around the sun the length of the lunar orbit is longer for an observer on the sun, however this is false. Why? Because the distance between Earth and the moon (R) is the same whether measured from Earth, from the sun or from the center of our galaxy... And since the length of the lunar orbit is simply 2πR then the length of the lunar orbit is the same for an observer on the sun, on the moon, Andromeda... Actually you should deduce from the above equation that R is measured the same for any observer in the Newtonian limit (non-relativistic).
You can make a quick Google search for "speed of light" and immediately get 299792.458 km/sec; however physics wise this is meaningless. Why? Because you cannot talk about the speed of light without defining your frame of reference. 299792.458 km/sec is the measured speed of light in local inertial frames. Form general relativity we know that as long as Earth is orbiting the sun then Earth is a non-inertial frame of reference. Earth can only be a local inertial frame if it exits the solar system or it enters a gravitational freefall towards the sun (straight in from afar). Suppose you are in a spaceship heading to a distant galaxy. Your frame of reference is your spaceship and it is pointing to and heading towards that galaxy. You keep pointing to and traveling in a straight line to that galaxy until you enter the gravitational field of a planet. Now the gravity of that planet makes your spaceship point away from that galaxy. But your spaceship is also your frame of reference, so the gravity of that planet is actually making your frame of reference to rotate with respect to stars. However in this rotating frame light does not travel in a straight line and the measured speed of light is undefined (the distance travelled in one hour gives a different speed than distance travelled in two hours...). Inside gravitational fields it is impossible to define a non-rotating frame with respect to stars unless this frame is in a gravitational freefall towards the gravitational source (straight in from afar). Since the Earth-moon system is not in a gravitational freefall towards the sun then our local frame of reference has to be rotating with respect to stars. What is the measured speed of light in this rotating frame? Undefined. However some skeptics use the synodic system, a rotating frame orbiting the sun (where the measured speed of light is undefined), with 299792.458 km/sec, the measured speed of light in a non-rotating frame freefalling towards the sun (straight in from afar). This is the same location but two different frames (in orthogonal motion). This comparison is invalid.
[3] Sun's gravitational field along with Earth's motion around the sun produce a net rotational force on the lunar orbit (like torque around Earth). Without this gravitational twist the moon's isolated orbital length would only be L' = Lcosø:
For the Earth-moon system to be outside gravitational fields then the distance to the sun has to increase to infinity. And as the distance to the sun increases to infinity the lunar orbit loses this twist; but this also means that the moon would no longer have enough kinetic energy to stay long at the compounded radius R and isolated velocity V' = Vcosø (too high too slow), instead it starts a spiral descent to the isolated radius R' = Rcosø and accelerates to final velocity

The ratio of the orbital binding energy (the ratio of the work required to move the moon against gravity to infinity) is:

his means that without the energy gained from this twist the orbital radius decreases to R' = Rcosø. Hence the length of the lunar orbit becomes L' = 2πR' = 2πRcosø = Lcosø (i.e. 12000 L' / t' = 12000 Lcosø / t') and the orbital period decreases.
Simply put: Outside the gravitational field of the sun all observers will see the speed of light equal to 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day.
An observer on Earth sees this force as rotational around Earth, however an observer on the sun sees this same force as radial towards the sun (not towards Earth). But no matter from where observers are looking they will all see this same force doing the same work.
In the isolated Earth-moon system (no sun) all external forces are screened out. This reveals the intrinsic characteristics, relations and capabilities of the system, that is, what the Earth-moon system can do on its own without any external forces. The energy for this isolated velocity V' came from a reaction force from Earth (see ocean friction above) and not from sun's gravitational force. As the moon acquires more energy from Earth's spin it does not actually speed up, instead it slows down because it orbits at a higher altitude (R' increases); the orbital period increases and the length of the lunar orbit increases. As R' reaches R, the isolated lunar orbit would have acquired the same radius and velocity as the one achieved with the assistance of the sun (R' = R & V' = V) but with a slower rotating Earth.

The nearest and farthest points in the orbit give us the average distance to the moon; but since Earth lies on the major axis of the ellipse then the average distance to the moon is just the semi-major axis. Geometrically, the radius of the equivalent circle should be the average of semi-major and semi-minor axes; but since the direction of the axes change with respect to stars then when the moon returns to the same position with respect to stars this does not mean that it made an exact ellipse. When astronomers study the energy of our moon and also the energy of moons orbiting other planets they use the equivalent circle method with the sidereal system, that is, the moon has to return to the same position with respect to stars and not return to the same position relative to the ellipse.
[4] Earth is spinning with respect to stars much faster than the moon is orbiting Earth. This makes the angle between Earth's isolated and compounded vectors to be different than that of the moon. Today when Earth rotates 360 degrees on its axis with respect to stars Earth moves 0.9829560917 degrees around the sun. Hence Earth's twist angle α = 0.9829560917 degrees.
α = (360 degrees / 365.2421987 synodic days) x (86164.0906 sec/86400 sec) synodic days = 0.9829560917 degrees
Just like when the moon recedes from Earth its spin slows down also when Earth recedes from the sun its spin slows down, that is, its rotational kinetic energy decrease (learn why at footnote [6]). So as the distance to the sun increases to infinity Earth day increases to

The ratio of the work required to stop Earth's rotation is:

[Footnotes needs finishing]
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Old May 18, 2010, 07:46 PM
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I will make the rest of the post more clear and readable later.
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Old May 18, 2010, 08:01 PM
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moslems??? where did u rip this thread from?
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Old May 18, 2010, 09:20 PM
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Yes Nafi bhai!! Al-Quran-ul Haqqu! Al-Quran is the ultimate truth. It's a beautiful thread!
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Old May 18, 2010, 09:56 PM
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I haven't read the whole thread yet but just a couple of points based on a cursory glance, the number of dimensions etc is still in the realm of theory, it is not proven nor is the theory accepted to be true. similar theories exist for the universe to be 5 dimensional, 11 dimensional, 10 dimensional, 23 dimensional and according to one any dimension you want (which basically means that all the many dimension theories are wrong to some extent). as of now string theory is not exactly in the pink of health and might undergo substantial revisions in the future.

secondly, I could find no Raef Fanous listed as a scientist in any of the physicist databases, either arxiv or SPIRES, not even google scholar elicited a mention. could you mention which institute he is associated with ?
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Old May 19, 2010, 04:56 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Neel Here
secondly, I could find no Raef Fanous listed as a scientist in any of the physicist databases, either arxiv or SPIRES, not even google scholar elicited a mention. could you mention which institute he is associated with ?
I never said famous physicist , he simply has a master's degree

Quote:
I haven't read the whole thread yet but just a couple of points based on a cursory glance, the number of dimensions etc is still in the realm of theory,
This is not a thread to prove how compatible Quran is with Modern day science, this is a philosophical thread to understand science from a Quranic perspective.
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Old May 19, 2010, 08:41 AM
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Signature of Creator - The Miracle of 19
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Old May 19, 2010, 09:21 AM
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Old May 19, 2010, 12:21 PM
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thanks for the clarification Nafi. but how can you do that when the 'science' itself may be wrong ? would you change the explanations all over again when the 'science' itself undergoes major revisions, as it frequently does ?
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Old May 19, 2010, 01:15 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Neel Here
thanks for the clarification Nafi. but how can you do that when the 'science' itself may be wrong ? would you change the explanations all over again when the 'science' itself undergoes major revisions, as it frequently does ?
I believe my edited version, was independent enough to not become to tied in within fluctuating mainstream scientific theory. Otherwise I would have included so many more vague/complex verses, where interpretations could have been exploited.

A lot of the above still has many loose ends. That we cant explain....yet

But I would also say Islam is pretty incompatible with the steady state theory of the universe. That cant be denied. But more and more evidence points towards big bang model, so Im at least more secure in my belief.
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Old May 19, 2010, 01:43 PM
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Quote:
The word "alaqah" refers to something that clings (like a leech or bloodsucker). This is an appropriate description of the human embryo from days 7-24 when it clings to the endometrium of the uterus, in the same way that a leech clings to the skin. Just as the leech derives blood from the host, the human embryo derives blood from the decidua or pregnant endometrium. It is remarkable how much the embryo of 23-24 days resembles a leech (Fig. 2). As there were no microscopes or lenses available in the 7th century, doctors would not have known that the human embryo had this leech-like appearance. In the early part of the fourth week, the embryo is just visible to the unaided eye because it is smaller than a kernel of wheat.
in Surah Alaq (the Clot - #96), it says people are created from "clots", hence the name of the surah.

however, a cursory study of Embryology, as offered by medical colleges, does not reveal any such thing. IIRC, the events are as follows:

spermatozoan meets ovum, binds the outside, fuses, and prevents any other spermatozoan from fertilizing the egg. the male DNA enters the female cell, and now you have a zygote which 6-9 days after fertilization (which itself occurs some 12-24 hours intercourse, IIRC), binds to endometrial lining, and 9 months or 37-41 weeks later, a bundle of joy pops out.

but when i was leafing through Langeman's Embryology textbook, i found the mentioning of a clot of blood at some point, which was quite mind boggling.
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Old May 19, 2010, 01:49 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by al Furqaan
in Surah Alaq (the Clot - #96), it says people are created from "clots", hence the name of the surah.

however, a cursory study of Embryology, as offered by medical colleges, does not reveal any such thing. IIRC, the events are as follows:

spermatozoan meets ovum, binds the outside, fuses, and prevents any other spermatozoan from fertilizing the egg. the male DNA enters the female cell, and now you have a zygote which 6-9 days after fertilization (which itself occurs some 12-24 hours intercourse, IIRC), binds to endometrial lining, and 9 months or 37-41 weeks later, a bundle of joy pops out.

but when i was leafing through Langeman's Embryology textbook, i found the mentioning of a clot of blood at some point, which was quite mind boggling.
The reference of clot is not the same as the clotting of blood (coagulation), if you research the arabic word, I think its better defined as a group of lumps. Hence the splitting of the zygote.

clog: coalesce or unite in a mass
wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

Hence its not talking about a clot of blood, rather a union of smaller lumps.

The embryology chapter, I havent fully checked over and verified.

I will get onto this when I can.
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Old May 19, 2010, 03:07 PM
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Thank you Nafi for the articles. Haven't gone thru it all, but i sure plan to do so Inshallah.

Thank you Ishtiaque for the wonderful video. It was mesmerizing, but not surprising.
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Old May 21, 2010, 06:37 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Rabz
Thank you Nafi for the articles. Haven't gone thru it all, but i sure plan to do so Inshallah.

Thank you Ishtiaque for the wonderful video. It was mesmerizing, but not surprising.
The first post is pretty basic, its the second and third where it get complicated
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Old May 21, 2010, 07:28 PM
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Old May 21, 2010, 09:00 PM
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What does Quran say about evolution?
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Old May 22, 2010, 06:50 AM
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What does Quran say about evolution?

[Quran 2.164] In the creation of the Heavens and the Earth; In the alternation of the night and the day; In the sailing of the ships through the sees with what benefits mankind; In the water which Allah sent down from the Heavens and brought with it life to Earth after being dead and gave life in it to every kind of land animal; And in directing the winds; And in the clouds that are enslaved between the Heavens and the Earth; [All these] are Signs for a people who comprehend

[Quran 24.43] Can you not see that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a pile? Then you see rain come out from within? And He sends down from heaven, mountains with ice inside them; that strike whomever He wishes or miss whoever He wishes; Its flash almost blinds you

(Quran, 24:45)" "And God has created every animal from water: of them there are some that creep on their bellies; some that walk on two legs; and some that walk on four. God creates what He wills for verily God has power over all things.
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Old May 22, 2010, 08:01 AM
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Do you understand what evolution is? Those three quotes says nothing about evolution. How does Adam and Eve come in to the whole evolution business?

Saying that "And God has created every animal from water" or similar generalization quotes of creation from water as an evidence of Quran supporting evolution is dishonest at best or failure to comprehend the process of evolution.

Straw man fallacy, really.
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Old May 22, 2010, 08:43 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Blah
Do you understand what evolution is? Those three quotes says nothing about evolution.
Look man you're just being abusive here, stop being so rude

I never claimed Quran explains or claimed evolution, it only really talks about origin of life, that's all. But i also interpret the verse saying that all living things had a single origin. And without water, life is impossible.

You dont seem to understand evolution is a broad subject, you'd find a few verses saying God made adam in stages, but i dont know that are convincingly supportive in the Quran , I haven't tried searching.

I only merely provided a Quranic support for a fraction.

Adam and Eve is another thing, again it has not been covered, I focused mainly on the physics and cosmology side in this thread.
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Old May 22, 2010, 09:34 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Nafi
Look man you're just being abusive here, stop being a prick.

I never claimed Quran explains or claimed evolution, it only really talks about origin of life, thats all. But i also interpret the verse saying that all living things had a single origin, in line with theories of ambiogenisis. Origin of species is a key integral part of the whole theory.

You dont seem to understand evolution is a broad subject, you'd find a few verses saying God made adam in stages, but not a lot that is convincingly supportive, I haven't tried searching.

I only merely provided a Quranic support for a fraction.

Adam and Eve is another thing, again it has not been covered, I focused mainly on the physics and cosmology side in this thread.
Quote:
I never claimed Quran explains or claimed evolution, it only really talks about origin of life, thats all.
You provided three random quotes to a question that asked, "What does Quran say about evolution?" to a thread titled: "The Quran Science thread".

Abiogenesis is development of living organisms from nonliving matter.

Evolution is change of living organisms through natural selection.

They are different things. So asking a question about evolution gives me a overgeneralized answer to a hypothetical question about Abiogenesis, is being willfully disingenuous.

A simple statement of "Quran doesn't explain or support evolution in any shape or form", the first time around, would have be an apt and right answer. (which you agreed when I pointed out your fallacy)

Quote:
Look man you're just being abusive here, stop being a prick rude.
How am I being abusive or (prick which you changed) rude?

Pointing out the fact that Quran (or any religious scripture) doesn't have answer to all (or any) answer to science is rude? You should know that Science is the study of facts, and they become facts only after you are willing to question, argue, discuss, experiment, counter-point, research every statement and claims in all forms. If you just node your head and agree with everything some random guy spouted out, its not science.

And since this thread is "The Quran Science thread", it would be unreasonable for me not to question your dubious claims. Even if it make me "a prick" rude.
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Old May 22, 2010, 09:55 AM
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Let me guess...

blah will get a deaththreat and he will take revenge by drawing nafi.
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Old May 22, 2010, 10:05 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Blah
And since this thread is "The Quran Science thread", it would be unreasonable for me not to question your dubious claims. Even if it make me rude.
Your post implied to me I was being ignorant. I didnt like it, thats all.
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