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  #1  
Old January 7, 2012, 01:07 AM
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Default The Bangladesh Files

BANFAN bhai's post in a thread regarding our early days as Bangladesh gave me this idea to open this thread as a retrospective (I do not what this word means), as a disscusion open table talk with civil and human decency of course. I thought of digging this topic/subject matter up for a much young generation of Bangladeshis today here in BC and young folks across the world of Bangladeshi diaspora (spell) that would want to know their country's/root's modern history.

The Coup-d'etats in an indepedent Bangladesh. I coppied the bottom from none other than the wikipedia...so please take caution I cannot vouch for everything stated here as acurate or the truth, this is what I found in wikipedia, every human being has a different experience, beliefs and ideas about many things, I do not neccessaryly (spell) agree or disagree with the below cut and paste and let's just look at this....I highlighted the names that interest me the most and I ask us to speak about them, what we know of them in a civil and adult manner of course. I think our young genration should know at least a little something about these leaders and military officers of their land and of their ancestors....

Quote:
1975 coups

[edit] 15 August

Main article: Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

The coup of 15 August 1975 was organized by officers of Bangladesh Army. They were led by Major Syed Faruqe Rahman and Major Rashid. The coup resulted in the assassination of the country's president Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, his entire family (daughters Sheikh Hasina and Sheikh Rehana escaped as they were in Germany) and several ministers and leaders of the Awami League.

[edit] 3 November

The government set up by Major Faruque, Major Rashid and Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad was overthrown in another coup on 3 November 1975. This was organized by Brigadier Khaled Mosharraf, Bir Uttom, a decorated freedom fighter. Mosharraf was seen by many as a supporter of the pre-August government. He put the army chief and fellow freedom fighter Major General Ziaur Rahman under house arrest but did not execute him. Some also claim that the personal friendship between the two officers prevented Brigadier Musharraf from carrying out Rahman's execution.

[edit] 7 November

Brigadier Mosharraf's 3 day coup ended due to revolt by soldiers of Bangladesh Army. They freed Major General Ziaur Rahman from house arrest and killed the coup leader Brig. Khaled Mosharraf and his associates. Rumors about Musharraf's affiliation with India (a FEER cover at the time carried the headline "The Indian Coup?") aggravated army suspicion of this coup. Former Army Chief Major General Shafiullah alleged that many JSD (Jatiyothabadi Shomajthantrhik Dol: National Socialist Party) elements infiltrated the army in early 1975. On 6–7 November 1975 some of the JSD elements distributed leaflets and agitated soldiers against the officer class of the army. JSD tried to control the counter-coup organized by Abu Taher. Taher rescued Ziaur Rahman from captivity but was later executed in a secret trial led by Ziaur Rahman. The special tribunal was described as a "kangaroo trial" by journalist Lawrence Lifschultz and led to his expulsion from the country by the military junta of Ziaur. Lifschultz later documented the tumultuous coup and counter-coup of this period in "Bangladesh: The Unfinished Revolution."

[edit] Coups between 1977-1980


This section requires expansion.


Ziaur Rahman survived as many as 21 coups during his five years until succumbing to the 22nd one. Most of those coups were led by the 1971 freedom-fighter officers who were irked by Ziaur's liaison with anti liberation pro Islamic quarters. 30 September 1977 a coup was held in Bogura Cantonment. 22 East Bengal Regiment occurred this coup. But It was failed. 2 October 1977 there was another coup held. It was led by the airmen of Bangladesh Air Force. 6 Air Force officers died in this coup. No one knows why this coup was began. Witness says that in 2 October 5 member of "Red Army" of Japani soldier was trying to hijack an Aero-Plane of Japan Airline DC-8 including 156 passengers. But they failed to hijack. Then the coup was began. For this reason 2500 soldiers killed in court martial. Officially 1183 Soldiers. 561 of them were Bangladesh Air Force airmen and rest of them were army soldiers. Army soldiers were killed for 30 September coup. [1] <----THIS IS VERY BADLY WRITTEN< SAY WHAT??? - BK

[edit] 1981 coup

Main article: Assassination of Ziaur Rahman

During his term of power, Zia was criticised for ruthless treatment of his political opposition.[2] Although he enjoyed overall popularity and public confidence, Zia's rehabilitation of some of the most controversial men in Bangladesh aroused fierce opposition from the supporters of the Awami League and veterans of the Mukti Bahini. Amidst speculation and fears of unrest, Zia went on tour to Chittagong on May 29, 1981 to help resolve an intra-party political dispute in the regional BNP. Zia and his entourage stayed overnight at the Chittagong Circuit House, a rest house. In the early hours of the morning of May 30, he was assassinated by a group of army officers along with six bodyguards and two aides.[3]

Zia's killing came as a central part of a botched military coup attempt led by Major General Abul Manzoor, who announced the killing and his take-over of the government on radio.[3] Manzoor had earlier been a senior army commander and had been transferred to Chittagong in 1977. He was scheduled for a new transfer to a non-command position in Dhaka and was reportedly disappointed over his impending demotion.[2]

After the assassination of Ziaur Rahman on 30 May 1981, the then Chief of Army Staff Lieutenant General Hussain Muhammad Ershad remained loyal[4] to the government and ordered the army to suppress the coup attempt of Zia's associates led by Major General Abul Manzoor. Manzoor was surrendered and immediately he was taken in cantonment and 12 hour later he was killed .

Zia was buried at the Chandrima Uddan in the locality of Sher-e-Banglanagar in Dhaka.[5] Large processions of supporters and BNP activists attended the funeral. Vice President Abdus Sattar immediately succeeded him as the acting president.

[edit] 1982 coup

Main article: 1982 Bangladesh coup d'état


Lieutenant General Ershad maintained loyalty to the new president Abdus Sattar, who led the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) to victory in elections in 1982. Lt. Gen. Ershad even allotted two houses to Mrs. Khaleda Zia & her two sons, one of [6] in Dhaka Cantonment where Ziaur Rahman's family still resides, and became a centre point of controversy later on.

However the BNP government was not doing well and pressure increased from high-ranking army commanders for the military to take over the reins of state. Lt. Gen. Ershad came to power in a bloodless coup on 24 March 1982 and proclaimed himself Chief Martial Law Administrator (CMLA), President Sattar was replaced.[7] He took over as president on 11 December 1983 by replacing A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury.[8]

To improve rural administration, Ershad introduced the Upazila and Zila Parishad system and held the 'first democratic elections for these village councils' in 1985. In an election held in 1986, Ershad was nominated by the Jatiya party, which had been created by him and his supporters. One of the major political parties BNP founded by his predecessor CMLA & later elected President Major General Ziaur Rahman led by his widow Khaleda Zia boycotted the elections; however the other major party Awami League led by Sheikh Hasina participated[9] in Bangladeshi general election, 1986. The Jatiya Party led by HM Ershad won the elections winning majority in the Jatiya Sangshad. In 1987 Bangladesh’s Land Ministry launched the 'Land Reforms Action Program', an initiative to distribute khas – unoccupied state-owned land, to landless families. A noble element of the land reform was the establishment by the Ministry of Land.[10]

Ershad's regime finally fell in December 1990; however he still managed some support as he was elected Member of Parliament three times and his Jatiya Party is the second largest party in Bangladesh's coalition government as elected in Bangladeshi general election, 2008.

[edit] 1996 Coup

In 1996, army chief Lt. General Abu Saleh Mohammad Nasim Bir Bikram, a decorated freedom fighter who was appointed army chief by the Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia of Bangladesh Nationalist Party, refused to execute the President's order to sack some of Nasim's favourite army commanders. In the days following the sacking there was considerable military build up in and around Dhaka as troops loyal to the President led by senior commanders like Major General Matin, Major General Imamuzzaman (all renowned freedom fighters) prepared to defend the capital Dhaka from those loyal to Lt. Gen. Nasim who were advancing towards Dhaka from districts. However, the situation was politically defused at the initiative of the Caretaker Government led by Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman. Lt. General Nasim was arrested and Major General Mahbubur Rahman, a non-freedom fighter army commander, was appointed the new army chief. Lt. General Nasim's associates Major General Ibrahim and few others were sacked and tried in a military court. Later in the year after the election, the new center-left government led by the Awami League overturned Nasim's dismissal and offered him a regular retirement instead, sent Lt. General Mahbubur Rahman on mandatory retirement, and appointed Major General (later General) Mustafizur Rahman, a freedom fighter who was at 7 days to end his leave prior retirement (LPR), as the new army chief. Mustafiz is related (Uncle) to Awami League President Shiekh Hasina.

[edit] 2007 Coup

Army chief General Moeen U Ahmed was the key force behind the declaration of emergency in the country on 11 January 2007 widely known as 1/11 phenomenon or coup while staying behind. He has been accused of forcing then president to resign from being chief of caretaker government of Bangladesh. Although never publicly admitted but he was praised for not declaring martial law. He and his chosen government has been accused domestically and globally to de-politicize the country. Hundreds of political figures including two ex-prime ministers, ministers, lawmakers and local government heads have been imprisoned by the regime accusing them of corruption. He initiated Minus 2 formula but failed.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militar..._in_Bangladesh
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Old January 7, 2012, 01:24 AM
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Also I would like to take this opportunity in this thread would like to discuss Shiraj Shikdar of the Shorbohara Party and any Nakshal movement in western Bangladesh and Uttor Bongo in the early through mid seventys. What do we know about Shikdar's murder? How different is Awami League's and later BAKSHAL's initial concept of socialism and Shorbohara's concept of socialism? Where did the conflict come from? How is the Nakshal (spell) movement organized, led and governed and were they backed by the Chinese Maoist type ideolgy and support from China? When Bakshal/the Awami League would have been more pro-Soviet?
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Old January 7, 2012, 05:42 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by bujhee kom
Also I would like to take this opportunity in this thread would like to discuss Shiraj Shikdar of the Shorbohara Party and any Nakshal movement in western Bangladesh and Uttor Bongo in the early through mid seventys. What do we know about Shikdar's murder? How different is Awami League's and later BAKSHAL's initial concept of socialism and Shorbohara's concept of socialism? Where did the conflict come from? How is the Nakshal (spell) movement organized, led and governed and were they backed by the Chinese Maoist type ideolgy and support from China? When Bakshal/the Awami League would have been more pro-Soviet?
Talking about Bakshal, you may watch this video.

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Old January 7, 2012, 06:34 PM
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Thank you my dear Naimul bro!
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Old January 7, 2012, 08:06 PM
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Zaved, while this is indeed a laudable thread that you have opened, I feel that it is important to note that our government is more than willing to put our citizens in prison for airing opinions or comments that they might not find favorable. And there are already rumors of our intelligence agencies trawling social network sites for such comments. As such, BC members who are solely BD citizens might want to be a little circumspect in their comments.
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Old January 7, 2012, 08:13 PM
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Thank you my dear Shaad bhaiya! Salaam and so good to see you here...I was so hoping to see you in here.
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Old January 7, 2012, 10:39 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by bujhee kom
Also I would like to take this opportunity in this thread would like to discuss Shiraj Shikdar of the Shorbohara Party and any Nakshal movement in western Bangladesh and Uttor Bongo in the early through mid seventys. What do we know about Shikdar's murder? How different is Awami League's and later BAKSHAL's initial concept of socialism and Shorbohara's concept of socialism? Where did the conflict come from? How is the Nakshal (spell) movement organized, led and governed and were they backed by the Chinese Maoist type ideolgy and support from China? When Bakshal/the Awami League would have been more pro-Soviet?
Zaved, a good starting point for discussing Siraj Sikder and the Sharbahara Party is Naeem Mohaiemen's well-researched 2006 article "Kothai Aj Shei Siraj Sikder (Where Today Is that Siraj Sikder?" -- Terrorists or Guerrillas in the Mist. It goes into considerable detail as to the Sharbahara Party's motivations, and to the state of affairs then which made it possible for them to call a nationwide strike on 15 and 16 December 1974.

In passing, note that while most of the leftist parties influenced by Chinese Maoist ideology were left paralyzed during our Liberation War (since China and Pakistan were allies at the time), the Sharbahara Party (despite being influenced by Maoism) had no such reservations -- in fact, based on their thesis, they called for a total break from Pakistan as early as 1968, and carried out attacks against the Pakistani regime as early as 1970.

While the Sharbahara Party's thesis makes it quite clear that they were ideologically opposed to what they termed Soviet-style "revisionism", I think two other issues played a stronger role in their animosity towards Awami League -- (i) the fact that AL, at the behest of the Indian High Command, had killed key leftist members of the Bengali liberation force using the Mujib Bahini faction of the Mukti Bahini (see Naeem's article), and (ii) the sheer disillusionment with the witch-hunts and administrative incompetence of the AL government from 1972-1974.

Understand that I am no fan of the Sharbahara Party -- their ideology holds no appeal to me, and I can never condone targeted assassinations. However, movements like them do not arise and flourish in a vacuum. And understanding their rise means acknowledging failures on the part of the regime then in power.
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Old January 8, 2012, 08:05 PM
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Thank you so much my dearest Dr. Shaad Uncleji for your such thorough and informative post.

Can you Shaad unclji, please shed some light on Colonel Taher and the before and after of his rise and eventually his execution, his relationship with Zia, he once saved Zia, then he arrested Zia, then Zia was released by him and then Zia executed him, all these...I know we can read upon this on our own, but coming from you, a great scholar, our pride and joy, in your word, I feel as a pupil of yours sitting under a big old tree in aBangla Summer and when you explain it is very easy for me to understand, grasp and stay focused.

2. Also the communistic infiltration in the Bangladesh Army in the pre 75 and Colonel's Taher's revolution.


3. Shaad uncle or any of the other great uncle bhais and apus, can you also please shed some light on Gen Manzoor and the surroundings of Pres. Zia's and eventually Manzoor's death. What happenned there, who was Manzoor, etc.


Thank you so much.
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Old January 9, 2012, 09:52 AM
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Interesting thread! Hoping to learn few things from here. It baffles me that growing up in Bangladesh and attending early education there, I know very little of my country. Such as, I still don't know when and for how long Ershad was president. This kind of recent history was never taught at my school. In fact, all our textbooks (English Medium school) were published from India and obviously had no information about Bangladeshi history.
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